Burn Injury - Burn Injury Functions of Skin o Protects against infection o Prevents loss of body fluids o Controls body temperature o Functions as

Burn Injury - Burn Injury Functions of Skin o Protects...

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Burn Injury Functions of Skin o Protects against infection o Prevents loss of body fluids o Controls body temperature o Functions as excretory organ o Functions as sensory organ Layers of Injury o Epidermis o Dermis o Subcutaneous o Muscles o Bone Layers of Injury Mechanism of Injury o A burn occurs when there is injury to the tissues of the body by: Heat Chemicals Electrical current Radiation Statistics o 40,000 are hospitalized o 25,000 are admitted to Burn ICU o 4,000 people die annually o Mortality rate: 4.9%
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Statistics o Most burns are preventable o Most common cause of fires in the home: Cigarette carelessness Hot water heaters set > 140° Cooking accidents Combustibles: Gas and charcoal lighter fluid Steam burns from radiators Chemicals Statistics o Highest fatality rates occurs in children and older adults o Nurses can be instrumental in providing safety education Gerontologic Considerations o Increased risk Reduced mobility, coordination, strength, sensation and vision changes Morbidity and mortality rates associated with burns are greater in elderly vs. young Age 60 with 60% TBSA= 96 % overall mortality rate Comorbidities 4 Major Goals o Prevention o Institution of lifesaving measures o Prevention of disability and disfigurement o Rehabilitation through reconstructive surgery Classification of Burn Injury o Treatment of burn related to severity of injury: Depth of burn Extent of burn (TBSA) Depth of Burn o Superficial Partial-Thickness Sunburn Low intensity flash o Deep Partial-Thickness Scalds, flame, contact o Full Thickness Flame, prolonged exposure to hot liquids, chemical, electrical current Superficial partial thickness o Epidermis destroyed o Dermis may be involved o Tingling, hyperesthesia
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o Pain soothed by cooling o Reddened, blanches with pressure o Dry o Minimal or no edema o Possible blisters o Complete recovery Deep partial thickness o Epidermis, upper dermis, portion of deeper dermis o Pain hyperesthesia o Sensitive to cold air o Blistered, mottled red base o Weeping o Edema o Recovery 2-4 weeks o Scarring, contractures o Infection may convert to 3rd degree Full thickness o Epidermis, entire dermis o Sometimes subcutaneous tissue o May involve connective tissues, muscle, bone o Dry, pale white, leathery or charred o Broken skin with fat exposed o Edema o Grafting necessary o Scarring/loss of contour and function o Contractures o Loss of digits/extremity Superficial Partial-Thickness Burn Superficial and Deep Partial-Thickness Burns
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Partial-Thickness Burn Deep Partial-Thickness Burn Partial-Thickness Scald Burn Full thickness burn
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Deep Full Thickness burn 3rd Degree Burn Deep Full Thickness burn 4th Degree Burn Extent of Burn o Total body surface area (TBSA)% “Rule of Nines” Lund and Browder Method Palmar Method Rule of Nine’s
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