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VOCAB 2 - Title Causal relationship Causation Comparative...

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Unformatted text preview: Title Causal relationship Causation Comparative questions Comparative research Controls Correlation Correlation coefficients Degree of dispersal Dependent variable Developmental questions Empirical investigations Ethnography Experiment Factual questions Hypotheses Independent variable Life histories Mean Measures of central tendency Median Mode Oral history Participant observation Pilot study Population Random sampling Reflexivity Representative sample Research methods Sample Sampling Standard deviation Survey Theoretical questions Triangulation Variable Description Reference A relationship in which one state of affairs (the effect) is brought about by anothe The causal influence of one factor, or variable, upon another. A cause and effect Questions concerned with drawing comparisons between different human societ Research that compares one set of findings on one society with the same type o Statistical or experimental means of holding some variables constant in order to The regular relationship between two variables, often expressed in statistical term The measure of the degree of correlation between variables. The range or distribution of a set of figures. A variable, or factor, causally influenced by another (the independent variable). Questions that sociologists pose when looking at the origins and path of develop Factual inquiries carried out in any area of sociological study. The firsthand study of people using participant observation or interviewing. A research method in which variables can be analyzed in a controlled and system Questions that raise issues concerning matters of fact (rather than theoretical or Ideas or guesses about a given state of affairs, put forward as bases for empiric A variable, or factor, that causally affects another (the dependent variable). Studies of the overall lives of individuals, often based on both selfreporting and A statistical measure of central tendency, or average, based on dividing a total b The ways of calculating averages. The number that falls halfway in a range of numbers--a way of calculating centr The number that appears most often in a given set of data. This can sometimes Interviews with people about events they witnessed or experienced at some poin A method of research widely used in sociology and anthropology, in which the re A trial run in survey research. The people who are the focus of social research. Sampling method in which a sample is chosen so that every member of the popu This describes the connections between knowledge and social life. The knowled A sample from a larger population that is statistically typical of that population. The diverse methods of investigation used to gather empirical (factual) material. A small proportion of a larger population. Studying a proportion of individuals or cases from a larger population as represe A way of calculating the spread of a group of figures. A method of sociological research in which questionnaires are administered to th Questions posed by sociologists when seeking to explain a particular range of ob The use of multiple research methods as a way of producing more reliable empir A dimension along which an object, individual, or group may be categorized, suc effect) is brought about by another (the cause). upon another. A cause and effect relationship exists whenever a particular event or state of affairs (the effect) is produced by th s between different human societies for the purposes of sociological theory or research. one society with the same type of findings on other societies. me variables constant in order to examine the causal influence of others. , often expressed in statistical terms. Correlations may be positive or negative. A positive correlation between two variables exi een variables. other (the independent variable). at the origins and path of development of social institutions from the past to the present. ological study. observation or interviewing. nalyzed in a controlled and systematic way, either in an artificial situation constructed by the researcher or in naturally occurring of fact (rather than theoretical or moral issues). put forward as bases for empirical testing. er (the dependent variable). based on both selfreporting and documents such as letters. erage, based on dividing a total by the number of individual cases. mbers--a way of calculating central tendency that is sometimes more useful than calculating a mean. set of data. This can sometimes be a helpful way of portraying central tendency. ssed or experienced at some point earlier in their lives. and anthropology, in which the researcher takes part in the activities of the group or community being studied. so that every member of the population has the same probability of being included. edge and social life. The knowledge we gain about society can affect the way in which we act in it. For instance, reading a surv ically typical of that population. ather empirical (factual) material. Different research methods exist in sociology, but the most commonly used are fieldwork (or om a larger population as representative of that population as a whole. stionnaires are administered to the population being studied. to explain a particular range of observed events. The asking of theoretical questions is crucial to allowing us to generalize abou y of producing more reliable empirical data than is available from any single method. or group may be categorized, such as income or height. effect) is produced by the existence of another (the cause). Causal factors in sociology include the reasons individuals give for ween two variables exists when a high rank on one variable is associated with a high rank on the other. A negative correlation or in naturally occurring settings. nstance, reading a survey about the high level of support for a political party might lead an individual to express support for that used are fieldwork (or participant observation) and survey methods. For many purposes, it is useful to combine two or more m ng us to generalize about the nature of social life. ons individuals give for what they do, as well as external influences on their behavior. A negative correlation exists when a high rank on one variable is associated with a low rank on the other. express support for that party too. combine two or more methods within a single research project. ...
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