AR100-02S09

AR100-02S09 - Archaeology100 IntroductiontoArchaeology

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Archaeology 100 Introduction to Archaeology
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What is Archaeology? Origins of the field. I. Archaeology, History and Chronology II. Anthropology and Culture III. Evolutionary Theory
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PART I Archaeology, History and Chronology
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Archaeology Defined ARCHAEOLOGY : the field of science that studies the past through its material remains (the Archaeological Record).
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Archaeology Vs. History Both seek knowledge of the past. History focuses on literate societies, especially elite individuals. Archaeology attempts to study all societies and members in a society. Even in the land of the earliest writing, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), historians only study a 5,500 year period. Archaeology covers over 4 million years. Many ancient cultures never developed an indigenous writing system (e.g., the Inca). Map of world from Babylon, 600 BC
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History of Humankind as a week Big Bang 10-15 BYA Earth 4.6 BYA Life 4 BYA Hominids — the last 11 minutes Art, Agriculture, and Industry — last 5 seconds Day = 650 MY Hour =25 MY Minute= 400,000 y 1 second = 6000 years
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The Subdivision of Prehistory Geologic Eras Cenozoic 65 MYA - Present Mesozoic 225 - 65 MYA Paleozoic 600 - 225 MYA Precambrian 4.6 BYA - 600 MYA Archaeology •Era •Cenozoic Era
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Subdivision of the Cenozoic Era into Epochs Holocene (Recent) Last 10,000 Years Pleistocene 2.0 MYA-10,000 YA Pliocene 5.5-2.0 MYA Miocene 25-5.5 MYA Oligocene 38-25 MYA Eocene 54-38 MYA Paleocene 65-54 MYA •Epoch •Archaeology deals primarily with the Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene.
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Subdivision of the Cenozoic Era into Seven Epochs Miocene (25–5.5 MYA)— climatic changes in northeast Africa spark the development of bipedal hominids Pliocene (5.5 to 2 MYA) — hominids develop larger brains and begin to produce stone tool. Scavenging, hunting and gathering. Pleistocene (2 MYA to 10,000 YA) — major climatic fluctuations (Ice Ages). Anatomically modern humans emerge (Homo sapiens sapiens). Hunters and gatherers. •Holocene (10,000 YA to present) — agriculture, cities, writing.
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Archaeological Divisions of Time: Christian Thomsen (1786-1865) and the Three Age System Antiquarians Prehistory divisible into Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages . Scheme developed by Christian Thomsen for organizing exhibits in the National Museum of Denmark. Quickly adopted throughout Europe for prehistoric periods in the Old World. This system was tested by Thomsen’s colleague, Worsaae , using archaeological evidence. Thomsen in the Danish National Museum
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Periods (Old World) STONE AGE Further subdivided in 1865 by John Lubbock into Paleolithic (chipped stone tools) and Neolithic (ground stone tools). A
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2009 for the course AR 100 taught by Professor Danti during the Spring '09 term at BU.

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AR100-02S09 - Archaeology100 IntroductiontoArchaeology

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