AR100-05S09

AR100-05S09 - Archaeology100 HumanOriginsI...

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Archaeology 100 Human Origins I The Basal and Lower Paleolithic
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PART I Introduction
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The Order Primates Linnaeus’ 10th edition of Systema Naturae placed humans in this order. 1816 the genus Pan was added for chimps. 1847 the genus Gorilla was added.
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The Great Apes Not much was known of the African great apes until the middle of the 19th century. However, Huxley knew enough in 1863 to compare their anatomy to humans in On Man’s Place in Nature .
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-Huxley concluded that the African apes were our closest living relative. -Darwin agreed. -Darwin, Wallace, and Huxley pointed to the tropics for the quest to find the “missing link.” The Great Apes
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The Superfamily Hominoidea Our closest living relatives: this superfamily includes the lesser and greater apes and humans. Family Genus Pongidae Pongo Orangutan ( Asia) Pan Chimps ( Africa) Gorilla Africa Hylobatidae Hylobates Gibbon ( Asia) Symphalangus Siamang (Asia) Hominidae Homo Worldwide
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The Superfamily Hominoidea Members of this superfamily: Distinctive molar cusp pattern Enlarged brains No tail Anatomical specialization in the shoulders and arms allow them to hang suspended below branches Chimps and gorillas are mainly terrestrial (knuckle walking) Gorilla Chimp
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Our Closest Ancestor 99% genetically identical to humans -Around 50 genes separate humans and chimps DNA shows an evolutionary divergence between 6-8 MYA African origin
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The Chimpanzee Height: Male 4 feet Female 3 feet Bipedal 40% of the time But limb proportions, knee and pelvis morphology make bipedality inefficient
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Limb Proportions One subspecies of chimp (Bonobos) is especially intelligent and has limb proportions that are very near to our early ancestors. Bipedality first appears ca. 6 MYA Note displacement of big toe.
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Chimpanzee Hunting (Males) Tool Use (Females) Sticks Leaves Stones
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Hominids vs. Hominoids Chimp physiology, anatomy and behavior is quite human-like. Traditionally anthropologists used tool use to define humanness But chimps use rudimentary tools. Heck, so do otters. They also have complex social organization and communicative skills We need some other criterion for distinguishing hominids from hominoids in the fossil record.
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The Family Hominidae Consists of two genera: Genus Australopithecus (5-1.5 mya) Genus Homo The genus Australopithecine probably evolved into the surviving genus of the hominid family Homo about 2-1.5 mya.
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The Data The study of our hominid ancestors is limited in time to the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. Eurasian, and especially for the earliest periods of human evolution, African geologic events are key research topics since the major phases of human evolution occurred in the Old World, and the earliest are confined to Africa.
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The Miocene (25-5.5 mya) At the beginning of the Miocene the African plate
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AR100-05S09 - Archaeology100 HumanOriginsI...

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