AR100-06S09

AR100-06S09 - Archaeology100 TheEvolutionofBigBrained...

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Archaeology 100 The Evolution of Big-Brained Hominids
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The Pleistocene 1.8 mya the transition from the Pliocene to the Pleistocene Homo erectus moves out of Africa 1.8 mya In Europe 700,000 ya In the Middle Pleistocene 700-120 kya we have speciation
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Archaic Sapiens and Fully Modern Humans The earlier forms of Homo sapiens are often referred to as Archaic Homo sapiens Homo heidelbergensis (Africa, Europe, India and Asia; 600-200 kya) — evolves out of Homo erectus Homo neanderthalensis (Europe, Middle East and West Asia; 200-28 kya) — evolves from Archaic forms Homo sapiens sapiens often called fully modern humans (FMH) First appear in South Africa 120 kya
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Homo heidelbergensis Cranium from Bodo, Ethiopia (600 kya) Decrease in robusticity in cranium Smaller teeth Increase in brain size (1200 cc) Stone tool cut marks on the forehead, eye sockets and rear of skull
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Atapuerca, Spain (Sima de los Huesos) Homo heidelbergensis 500-350 kya Remains of at least 32 Archaic Sapien individuals in a pit at the back of a cave 55 m deep (175 ft), 500 m (1500 ft) from the entrance. Thousands of bones — largest collection of hominid fossils ever found.
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Atapuerca, Spain (Sima de los Huesos) Ritual “burial” or simply garbage disposal? No grave goods or artifacts found.
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The Neanderthals and early Fully Modern Humans The Middle Paleolithic 200,000-35,000 BP
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Klasies River Mouth, SA: The First Fully Modern Humans Caves in South Africa at the point where the Klasies River empties into the Indian Ocean 120 and 70 kya (Middle Stone Age) 100 kya fully modern humans
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Klasies River Mouth, SA: Behaviorally Modern? The early sites have accumulations of debris and rude tools (120 kya). The later sites were kept clean and have much more advanced stone tools (70 kya).
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The “First Neanderthal” — The Neander Valley Homo sapiens neanderthalensis first discovered in 1856. Cave in the Neander Valley near Düsseldorf, Germany Most people didn’t believe it. 1886 more Neanderthal remains were found — that began to convince people.
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Marcellin Boule 1913 publishes a study of an arthritic Neanderthal from La Chapelle-aux-Saints. Claims it is a new species — Homo neanderthalensis. Most people now recognize it as a subspecies of Homo sapiens. He describes Neanderthals as idiots.
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Map showing the Distribution of Neanderthals
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The Neanderthal Skull Pronounced brow ridge Sloping forehead Low cranium Robust appearance Occipital bun Large face Nose and teeth sit far forward
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Neanderthals Neanderthals were shorter but more robust than modern humans. Thickened, curved long
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2009 for the course AR 100 taught by Professor Danti during the Spring '09 term at BU.

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AR100-06S09 - Archaeology100 TheEvolutionofBigBrained...

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