44 - 44 Neurons and Nervous Systems Neurons and Nervous...

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44 Neurons and Nervous Systems
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Neurons and Nervous Systems Nervous Systems: Cells and Functions Neurons: Generating and Conducting Nerve Impulses Neurons, Synapses, and Communication
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Nervous systems consist of cells that process and transmit information. Sensory cells transduce information from the environment and body and communicate commands to effectors such as muscles or glands. Neurons and Nervous Systems
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Nervous Systems: Cells and Functions Neurons are specialized cells of the nervous system that receive, encode, and transmit information. Neurons with their support cells ( glial cells ) make up nervous systems . Information is received by sensory cells and converted or transduced into electrical signals that are transmitted and processed by neurons. To cause behavioral or physiological responses, a nervous system communicates these signals to effectors , such as muscles and glands.
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Nervous Systems: Cells and Functions Simple animals process information with a simple network of neurons ( nerve net ) that does little more than provide direct lines of communication from sensory cells to effectors. The next level of nervous system complexity includes clusters of neurons called ganglia . Frequently one pair of ganglia is larger and more central and is given the designation brain .
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Figure 44.1 Nervous Systems Vary in Size and Complexity (A,B) Use Fig 44.1: A, B, and C
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Figure 44.1 Nervous Systems Vary in Size and Complexity
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Nervous Systems: Cells and Functions In vertebrates, brain and spinal cord form the central nervous system , which communicates with other body tissues via the peripheral nervous system .
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Figure 44.2 Figure 44.2 Brains Vary in Size and Complexity
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Nervous Systems: Cells and Functions Neurons receive information mostly via their dendrites and transmit information over their axons. They function in networks.
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Figure 44.3 – Part 2 Figure 44.3 – Part 2 Figure 44.3 Neurons 
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2008 for the course BIOLOGY 020.152 taught by Professor Pearlman during the Spring '08 term at Johns Hopkins.

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44 - 44 Neurons and Nervous Systems Neurons and Nervous...

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