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Chapter3.ppt - 3 3 Chapter ETHICAL THEORIES AND PRINCIPLES...

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Chapter3333ETHICAL THEORIESAND PRINCIPLES
All Rights ReservedBusiness Ethics© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 20141– 3Learning OutcomesLearning OutcomesAt the end of this chapter, you should be able to:Explain the fundamentals of moral philosophyDifferentiate between teleological and deontological theories of ethicsExplain influential ethical theories and/or principles applied in today’sglobal era: Utilitarian Theory, Kant’s Ethics of Duty, Aristotle’s Virtue Ethics,Carol Gilligan’s Ethics of Care, Theory of Rights, Theory of Justice andRawls’ Distributive Justice/Egalitarian TheoryElaborate on the important features of each ethical theoryList and analyse the strengths and limitations of each theory, whereappropriateApply the ethical theories to make sound business decisions
All Rights ReservedBusiness Ethics© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 20141– 4Understanding the FundamentalsUnderstanding the Fundamentalsof Moral Philosophyof Moral PhilosophyThe termethicsis derived from the Greek word,ethos, whichmeans character, spirit and attitudes of a group of people or culture(Rahman, 2003).Ethics is concerned with what is good or right in human interaction(Abdullah and Mohamad Zainol Abidin, 2011) and deals with justiceand rights issues (Boatright, 2012). It is thereforea study of actionand how man should act.It relates to one’s behaviour and in order to act ethically, one isdependent on epistemology of ethics knowledge.It is impossible to make choices on how to act morally withoutknowledge on ethics.
All Rights ReservedBusiness Ethics© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 20141– 5Understanding the FundamentalsUnderstanding the Fundamentalsof Moral Philosophyof Moral PhilosophyThere arefivebranches of philosophy:Ethics is also a branch of philosophy.
All Rights ReservedBusiness Ethics© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 20141– 6Understanding the FundamentalsUnderstanding the Fundamentalsof Moral Philosophyof Moral PhilosophyEthics may be divided intotwobranches:meta-ethicsandnormative ethics.Meta-ethicsis the study about where ethical concepts camefrom and what they mean.Ithastwomainforms:moral/ethicalrelativismandmoral/ethical objectivism.Moral relativismconsiders what is right or wrong is notabsolute. It is relative and variable depending on the person,circumstances and social situation.Moral objectivismconsiders certain acts as objectively right orwrong, independent of human opinion.
All Rights ReservedBusiness Ethics© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 20141– 7Understanding the FundamentalsUnderstanding the Fundamentalsof Moral Philosophyof Moral Philosophy
All Rights ReservedBusiness Ethics© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 20141– 8Understanding the FundamentalsUnderstanding the Fundamentalsof Moral Philosophyof Moral PhilosophyNormative ethicsis ‘a set of principles that guide or regulatehumanconduct’(Rahayu,2012).Itprovidesgeneralguidelines for deciding what is morally right or wrong.

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