4-AqueousEquilibria-ElectrolyticCharacter

4-AqueousEquilibria-ElectrolyticCharacter - Problem Sets...

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Electrolytes General Solubilities of Common Compounds in Water Guidelines for Identifying Electrolytes and Non-electrolytes Guidelines for Writing Net Ionic Equations Ionization Constants for Acids and Bases Problem Sets Handouts Equilibrium Constant Determination
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Aqueous Equilibria Electrolytic Character Edward A. Mottel Department of Chemistry Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology
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05/13/09 Electrolytes Reading Assignment: Zumdahl: Chap. 4.1-4.3 Lab manual Exp F The behavior of solutes will be described by their ability to dissolve and their tendency to form ions in solution.
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05/13/09 Electrolytes The degree that a compound dissociates into ions is a  measure of its strength , not its concentration. 0% 100% Strong electrolytes - dissociate virtually 100% into ions, at all concentrations Weak electrolytes - dissociate less than 50% into ions Non-electrolytes - do not form ions when dissolved in a solvent
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05/13/09 Strong Electrolytes Strong Acids HCl, HBr, HI, HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 , HClO 4 , etc. Strong Bases Group IA hydroxides: NaOH, KOH • Ca(OH) 2 , Sr(OH) 2 , Ba(OH) 2 Most ionic compounds
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05/13/09 Strong Electrolytes Soluble Salts Binary compounds of metal cations with nonmetal anions Compounds of metal cations with polyatomic anions Ammonium cation with nonmetal or polyatomic anions. Which of these are soluble, strong electrolytes? KCl, Zn(NO 3 ) 2 , CuSO 4 , NH 4 I
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05/13/09 Strong Electrolytes Slightly soluble salts Compounds which have a solubility product constant (K sp ) are strong electrolytes, but are not very soluble. AgCl, BaSO 4 , Mg(OH) 2 , etc. This indicates that AgCl isn’t very soluble. (sparingly soluble) AgCl (s) AgCl (aq) Ag + (aq) + Cl (aq) This indicates that the amount of AgCl which dissolves ionizes extensively. (strong electrolyte)
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05/13/09 Weak Electrolytes Weak acids, weak bases, and other soluble compounds which do not ionize extensively. A weak electrolyte will usually have a dissociation constant associated with it such as K a or K b .
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05/13/09 Weak Electrolytes Weak Acids HCOOH, CH 3 COOH, HF, HCN, HNO 2 , H 3 PO 4 , H 2 S, HS , H 2 CO 3 , HCO 3 , etc.
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