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audition-slides - Audition October 16th 2007 Paul D Allen...

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Audition October 16 th , 2007 Paul D Allen, PhD
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Sound is vibration
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Basics of Sound In air, sound consists of pressure waves Frequency: number of waves/second Amplitude: Pressure differences in waves - measured in decibels
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What Range of Sounds do Humans Hear? Infrasound Ultrasound
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Human Sound Perception Frequency: -related to Pitch perception Range is 15-20000Hz best from 250Hz to 8kHz Amplitude: - related to loudness perception Range is typically 0-90 dB SPL, louder than this can cause hearing damage Speech: complex pattern of time varying frequencies and amplitudes
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Example: Spectrogram of Speech Frequency Time
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Transduction of Sound by the Ear
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Auditory nerve Cochlea Semicircular canals Anvil Hammer Stirrup External auditory canal Tympanic membrane Pinna
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Anvil Hammer Tympanic membrane Stirrup Scala Vestibuli Auditory nerve Basilar membrane Hair Cells Oval Window Scala Tympani Scala Media
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Three rows of Outer Hair Cells Basilar membrane Tectorial membrane Axons of bipolar cells of the spiral ganglion (Auditory nerve) The Organ of Corti Single row of Inner Hair Cells
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Haircell Stereocilia
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Vibration of BM deflects stereocilia
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T e c to ria l M m b ra n Terminal from bipolar cells of the spiral ganglion Hair Cells
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T e c t o r i a l M m b n Terminal from bipolar cells of the spiral ganglion Depolarization Ca ++ Opening of voltage dependent Ca ++ channels s d u Hair Cells Neurotransmitter release Action Potential K +
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Frequency Decomposition of Sound in the Cochlea
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audition-slides - Audition October 16th 2007 Paul D Allen...

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