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24bverttree - Identify the informal groups within Craniates...

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Identify the informal groups within Craniates: Gnathostomes, Tetrapods, Amniotes. Recognize animals within those groups and describe the characteristics that includes them in the group. Describe the origin of jaws beginning with the function of neural crest cells and including the hypothesized role of the homeotic gene complex duplication. Describe how bony fish have a lung derivative. Outline the origin of tetrapods. Describe the general characteristics of the amniotic egg. Describe the major evolutionary stages of free living larval form to mammalian embryo. Describe the three groups of mammals. Discuss the major characteristics of each group. Outline the homeotic gene duplication theory including organisms on the animal tree that mark the duplications. 1
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III. Major innovations on tree What is over here? Cephalochordates Myxini: hagfish Craniates (skull no backbone) Quasi vertebrate vertebrates craniates Note the boney fishes. 2
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Hagfish *Cartilaginous skull (HOX gene duplication here?) No jaw No vertebrae Stiffened with a large notochord No paired appendages *bone forming matrix without calcium 3
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III. Major innovations on tree Lamprey: Vertebral column Group the boney fishes 4
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Skull (HOX gene duplication here) Vertebrae (notochord between) No jaws The “teeth” are dermal elements but still require neural crest cells lamprey 5
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Jaws (second gene duplication) Paired fins - active swimming and better feeding Teeth (the real kind) Calcium in the bone and teeth What about sharks?
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