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lecture%202 - CHAPTER 1 Atoms: The Quantum World Discovery...

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CHAPTER 1 Atoms: The Quantum World
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Discovery of the electron: J.J. Thomson
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J.J. Thomson "Could anything at first sight seem more impractical than a body which is so small that its mass is an insignificant fraction of the mass of an atom of hydrogen? --which itself is so small that a crowd of these atoms equal in number to the population of the whole world would be too small to have been detected by any means then known to science. “http://www.aip.org/history/electron/jjsound.htm Recording made in 1934. From the soundtrack of the film, Atomic Physics copyright © J. Arthur Rank Organization, Ltd., 1948.
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Rutherford’s Experiment
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Nuclear Model of the Atom
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Observing Atoms Spectroscopy: the analysis of the light emitted or absorbed by substances. Spectrum of Excited Hydrogen Gas Spectrum of Excited Hydrogen Gas
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Light is Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic radiation = a wave of electric and magnetic fields ALL electromagnetic radiation travels at a speed of 3.00 x 10 8 m/s (speed of light)
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Electromagnetic Radiation
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wavelength Red light wavelength Amplitude Node Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic Radiation Wave terms frequency wavelength amplitude node Blue light
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Waves have a frequency of oscillation and a wavelength Use the Greek letter “nu”, ν , for frequency units are hertz or cycles per sec, s -1 Use the Greek letter lambda, λ , for wavelength λ ν = c where c = velocity of light Long wavelength C small frequency Short wavelength C high frequency Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic Radiation
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Long wavelength C small frequency Short wavelength C high frequency increasing increasing frequency frequency Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic Spectrum increasing increasing wavelength wavelength Frequency determines color
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Electro Electro magnetic magnetic Spectrum Spectrum
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State of Science in 1900 State of Science in 1900 Light and other radiation described by Maxwell’s equations
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lecture%202 - CHAPTER 1 Atoms: The Quantum World Discovery...

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