ch14+students

ch14+students - Psychological Disorders Crazy, toys in the...

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Psychological Disorders Crazy, toys in the attic
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Historical Perspective Explained and responded to abnormality in different ways at different times. Trephination, whole in the head Evil spirits Possessed by the Devil Witches “Malious Male Forcoram” Impurities float Hippocrates, like other physical ailments
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Defining and Classifying Historical Explanations of Abnormal Behaviors Demonic possession Physical diseases Products of psychological conflicts Learned maladaptive behaviors Distorted perceptions of the world
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Defining and Classifying What is Abnormal Behavior? Behavior that is so: Personally distressful Personally dysfunctional Culturally deviant Others judge it as inappropriate or maladaptive
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Defining and Classifying Diagnosing Psychological Disorders Reliability Clinicians should show high levels of agreement in their diagnostic decisions
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Defining and Classifying Diagnosing Psychological Disorders Validity Diagnostic categories should accurately capture essential features of disorders
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Defining and Classifying DSM-IV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Most widely used classification system in U.S.
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Defining and Classifying DSM-IV Axes Axis I: Primary clinical symptoms Axis II: Long-standing personality or developmental disorders Axis III: Relevant physical conditions Axis IV: Intensity of environmental stressors Axis V: Coping resources as reflected in recent adaptive functioning
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Is it Arbitrary ?
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Anxiety Disorders Definition Frequency and intensity of anxiety responses are out of proportion to the situations that trigger them Anxiety interferes with daily life
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Anxiety Disorders
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Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder Chronic state of diffuse, “free-floating” anxiety Anxiety not attached to specific objects or situations
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Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder Panic occurs suddenly and unpredictably Much more intense than typical anxiety
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Anxiety Disorders Agoraphobia: Fear of open and public spaces from which escape would be difficult Social phobias: Fear of situations in which evaluation might occur
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Anxiety Disorders Phobias Strong and irrational fears of certain objects or situations
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Anxiety Disorders Specific phobias: Fear of specific objects such as animals or situations
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Anxiety Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessions Repetitive and unwelcome thoughts, images, or impulses Compulsions Repetitive behavioral responses
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Anxiety Disorders Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Severe anxiety disorder Can occur in people exposed to extreme trauma
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Anxiety Disorders Symptoms of PTSD Severe symptoms of anxiety, arousal, and distress Reliving of trauma in flashbacks Numb to world and avoidance of reminders Intense “survivor guilt”
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ch14+students - Psychological Disorders Crazy, toys in the...

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