Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10 Profile of Adolescence Chapter 10 Focus This chapter focuses on the behaviors of humans as they move through a period known as adolescence. According to Poole, adolescence is "the time between puberty and adulthood when children undergo the physical and psychological changes they need to assume adult roles". This presentation examines how puberty affects cognitive, social, emotional, and moral development The Wonder of Puberty Boys and girls begin puberty at different ages, typically two years apart. Girls: 8-14 years old, Boys: 9-15 years old The endocrine system is responsible for the release of hormones which triggers the unfolding of physical and psychological changes. The same hormones that trigger physical changes are also responsible for increased moodiness, depression and aggressiveness. The Wonder of Puberty Primary Sex Characteristics Secondary Sex Characteristics Structures that are directly involved in reproduction, including the uterus ovaries and vagina in girls, and the penis and testes in boys. Characteristics that help distinguish between males and females but are not necessary for reproduction, including breasts in girls and facial hair and a deeper voice in boys. The Wonder of Puberty The teenage brain is slowly remodeled during puberty, just like the body. During the teenage "brain spurt", a human's brain undergoes several developmental changes: Taking risks Gut reactions Becoming thoughtful and evaluating mistakes The brain is later "fine tuned" by synaptic pruning. Cognitive Development It is during this adolescent period that children transition into Piaget's stage of formal operational thought (Poole). This stage allows for more abstract thoughts or those not grounded in concrete reality. Hypodeductive-reasoning: the ability to think like a scientist by mentally generating hypotheses, deducing how an experiment should come out if a hypothesis is true, and coordinating conclusions with evidence. Cognitive Development As a result of the completed brain spurt, humans use two different ways to reason, a trait known as dual processing: Consciously applying rules to solve problems Unconscious system to interpret information Sometimes personal goals and emotions influence judgment. These mental processes are known as hot cognition. Cognitive Development The adolescent brain and thought process if often flawed or faulty. Suddenly influenced by self-interest and emotions Frequently overlook long term consequences Make poor decisions that evoke hot cognition Unknown degree of peer influence Emotional and Social Development David Elkind evaluated how adolescents view themselves in relation to the rest of the world. Imaginary audience Personal fable Adolescent egocentrism Emotional and Social Development Erikson proposed that adolescents are typically in conflict of identity crisis. Children explore who they are Erikson's fifth stage of psychological development Identity versus role confusion Adolescents not only explore who they are, but how they fit into society. Emotional and Social Development Friendships are also subject to change during the adolescent period. Friends increasingly become the targets of intimacy (over parents / romantic partners) The teenage social system: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Peer cultures vary across cultures and social contexts Peer relationships are constantly changing It is common to have multiple peer groups One-on-one relations are influenced by interactions at other levels Peer status shows some stability and some instability Emotional and Social Development Adolescents often become part of a larger social group, referred to as cliques Three to ten members Tend to be homogenous in terms of age, gender, ethnicity There are often benefits and costs to belonging to a clique: Closer friends / relationships Peer pressure Emotional and Social Development During the adolescent period, many young people engage in dating and develop romantic attachments. Many of these romantic relationships are short lived. When a high degree of intimacy is involved, the termination of these romantic relationships can be a trigger for the first episode of major depression. Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg explored moral dilemmas -Used life saving drug example Preconventional Morality Children view rules as absolute and judge actions by whether or not they lead to punishment. Conventional Morality People are concerned about pleasing others, being a good person, and maintaining social order rather that making decisions based on universal ethical principles. Moral Development Kohlberg believed that when people have the opportunity to think about moral issues, they are given the motivation for moral development. Impressive moral reasoning does not necessarily translate into impressive moral behavior. According to Poole, advanced moral reasoning is associated with exposure to a variety of opinions and parents who involve their children in decision making. ...
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- Spring '08
- Kohlberg's stages of moral development