Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Pathways Through Adolescence...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11 Pathways Through Adolescence Chapter 11 Focus This chapter focuses on the ways in which adolescents develop their personal identity. There are many influences in the development of a personal identity, including gender, communities, work, tough choices, etc. As adolescents explore their identities, they are often exposed to negative influences such as drugs, sexually transmitted diseases, and a variety of mental disorders. Communities, Schools and Families In many cultures, it is popular to highlight transitions between stages of life with rites of passage. A ritual ceremony that makes this transition, typically at birth, end of childhood, marriage and death. Adolescents claim that formal recognition of a new status is highly meaningful. Communities, Schools and Families It has become evident that cultures with rites of passage often allow adolescents to more smoothly transition into adulthood. Smooth transition = more successful? 1. 2. 3. Each individual environmental variable has only a small effect on success Specific environmental contexts affected specific outcomes The best predictor of overall success was the sum of scores across environmental contexts Schools Transitions between schools or grades often lead to poor academic performance. Psychological effect of transition More stringent academic requirements Interruption of friendships / relationships Drop in self esteem is more prevalent for girls than boys. Schools The size of the school itself often has a profound impact on success. Highstakes tests are often responsible for determining future opportunities (SAT = college admission). 1. 2. 3. Higher gains in math in schools of 600900 Not too big, but not too small = perfect balance in size is needed for best achievement. Some opponents suggest that highstakes testing is not a fair indicator of academic merit or potential. Academic achievement How questions are selected Students reactions to testing situations / stereotype threat Adolescents and their Families As children pass through the adolescent period, there is a notable increase in parent child conflict. Conflict is not always a bad thing, as it has the ability to strengthen communication. Only a small portion of these conflicts lead to depression or avoidance. Adolescents and their Families There are four parenting characteristics that influence the probability that adolescents will feel good about themselves 1. 2. 3. 4. Parental Expectations Parental Monitoring Family Decision Making Parental involvement There is no guidebook that clearly explains to parents how to raise a child. Lucky children are those that have multiple people in their lives. When more people are involved, there are more opportunities for a child to get what he needs. Leisure and Work How adolescents spend their time varies from culture to culture. Largely due to degrees of schooling and the time involved with developing an education. The idea of earning money through paid employment varies between households. Some see a need for a good work ethic Some see a distraction from schoolwork Adolescents on the Workforce There are three general conclusions that summarize the research on teen employment 1. 2. 3. The nature of the job matters The time of work matters The community context matters The decision whether or not to engage in teen employment must be made on an individual basis, taking into account many different factors. Risky Choices Adolescence is often when a person first experiments with psychoactive drugs, including alcohol. These are chemical that affect perception, mood, or behavior. Mixing alcohol with driving is especially dangerous, as it is a CNS depressant. Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Decreases quality of life long before it encourages an early death. Risky Choices In today's society, there are a wide variety substances one can abuse. Those that are readily available (like inhalants) are those teens are likely to experiment with first. By age 1415, Marijuana is most used substance after alcohol and tobacco. A small percentage of teenagers have reported used "harder" drugs like cocaine, methamphetamine, or LSD. Risky Choices There are many popular misconceptions about drug users among adolescents: 1. 2. 3. Minority teens are the most likely teens to use drugs. Drug use is much more common in large urban areas. Girls are much less likely than boys to experiment with drugs. Holding these false beliefs is dangerous because it can lead to a false sense of security of those who do not fit the stereotype. Risky Choices Sexual issues are another huge hurdle for adolescents to cross. The process of exploring sexuality has slowly changed over time. Adolescents are often shielded from information relating to sexual issues Oral sex and the associated risks Difficulty defining "virginity" Leads to misconceptions Possibly devastating consequences Risky Choices The intimate nature of sexual contact can lead to the spread of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Estimated 19 million new STD cases in the US each year. Cause more than just embarrassment; they can lead to infertility, cancer, blindness. AIDS crisis had dramatically increased STD awareness. Risky Choices Many adolescents seems to have a reasonable degrees of knowledge on the subject of birth control. Factors distinguish teens who use contraception reliably from those who don't: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Many different highly effect forms Compliance / regular use becomes an issue Comfortable parental discussions Feelings toward sexuality Steady relationships Those who do well in school Cultural norms for timing of pregnancy Sexual Identities The process of exploring sexual orientation begins at childhood and continues through adulthood. Children become more aware of their sexual attractions and whether or not they will be accepted by their peers during adolescence. Most scientists agree that biological mechanisms operate early in life to determine sexual orientation. ...
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