11 chromosomal mutations

11 chromosomal - Japan jumps towards personalized medicine Japanese companies say they have built a desktop machine that will allow doctors to

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Japan jumps towards personalized medicine Japanese companies say they have built a desktop machine that will allow doctors to assess patients' DNA from a single drop of blood, and so tailor treatment to an individual's genes. The machine can deliver results within an hour, they say, and will be on sale for 5 million yen (US$44,000) by autumn 2006. Sato admits that initially his machine will be most useful for research. But judging from the "unbelievable number of responses" received since announcing the test, he says there is no way that 15 years will pass before doctors are using such devices for day-to-day diagnosis and treatment
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Chromosome mutations have big consequences How big is the pumpkin? Does this work for humans and animals?
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Chromosome mutations There are two major types: 1. Changes in the no. of copies of chromosomes ( polyploidy for too many copies of a complete set - aneuploidy for only part of a set) 2. Alterations of chromosome structure ( translocation, inversion, deletion, duplication ) What’s worse – a chromosome mutation or a gene mutation?
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Aberrant euploidy: too many or not enough complete sets of chromosomes Ploidy: the number of complete chromosome sets Euploidy: multiples of the basic chromosome set. In most organisms this is either haploid ( 1n ) or diploid ( 2n ) Aberrant euploid: more or less than the normal number monoploid (1 n ) triploid (3 n ) tetraploid (4 n ) pentaploid (5 n ) hexaploid (6 n ) Polyploidy = multiples of the normal euploid state How much polyploidy can you get? Mega rat A newly discovered big tetraploid rat has really huge sperm
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Monoploidy occurs in male bees and ants Male bees, wasps, ants are monoploid. They have only one set of chromosomes. What’s the difference between monoploid and haploid? They arise by parthenogenesis = development of unfertilized egg Thus, they contain only a single set of chromosomes Monoploidy is usually lethal. If the individual survives to adulthood, no meiosis can occur and the organism is sterile Would a normally diploid species have trouble developing as a monoploid?
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Polyploidy is common in plants Polyploidy is common in plants but very rare in animals associated with origin of new plant species may positively correlate to size of individual plants Autopolyploids: multiple sets of chromosomes from the same species autotriploid (2 n + n ) is sterile due to formation of aneuploid gametes autotetraploid (doubling of 2 n ) is fertile Are all polyploid organisms with an odd no. of copies fertile?
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of chromosomes sterile?
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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2008 for the course BY 214 taught by Professor Woodworth during the Spring '07 term at Clarkson University .

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11 chromosomal - Japan jumps towards personalized medicine Japanese companies say they have built a desktop machine that will allow doctors to

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