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02 Structure of Genes - Should scientists be able to patent...

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Scientists from Harvard University made the ONCO- MOUSE. It gets cancer very easily due to changes in specific genes Myriad Genetics and problems with BRCA testing and breast cancer research Should scientists be able to patent transgenic mice or specific genes?
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How far would all of your DNA stretch?
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Farther than you thought?
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Nuclear DNA Highly organized, various degrees of coiling Each cell contains 2 meters of DNA (about 10 trillion cells) The human body contains about 2 x 10 13 meters of DNA The DNA in your body would stretch to the planet Pluto and back…… About 14 billion miles!!!
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Its only been 50 years since the structure of DNA was determined! 1953: James Watson and Francis Crick solved the chemical structure of DNA; they subsequently won the Nobel Prize 2003: complete sequence of the human genome determined
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DNA as hereditary material Transformation (uptake of foreign DNA) in prokaryotes and eukaryotes has shown that DNA is hereditary material. Oswald Avery’s experiment in 1944. What did he do? Three key properties of DNA 1. accurately replicated prior to each cell division 2. has information content - encodes proteins 3. is capable of mutation evolutionary change.
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DNA is composed of nucleotides Deoxyribose (pentose sugar), with 3’ –OH Phosphate (on 5’ carbon) Nitrogenous base Purine = 2 rings (adenine and guanine) Pyrimidine = 1 ring (thymine and cytosine)
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DNA normally consists of 2 anti- parallel polynucleotide chains It has a sugar–phosphate backbone made of phosphodiester bonds 5’ to 3’ connection of sugars Base pairs are complementary A – T and G – C hydrogen bonds 2 per A – T 3 per G – C Hydrogen bonds are weak. Why is this important? DNA is chemically stabile DNA is a double helix Which is stronger?
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Woolly Mammoth Resurrection "Jurassic Park" Planned A team of Japanese geneticists aim to bring woolly mammoths back and create a Jurassic Park-style refuge They plan to retrieve sperm from a mammoth frozen in tundra, use it to impregnate an elephant, and then raise the offspring If DNA is chemically stable, why will this be a problem? Woolly mammoth genome comes to life. Decoding extinct genomes now possible, says geneticist Woolly mammoths, which have become symbols of the Ice Age, died out 10,000 years ago.
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Structure of prokaryotic genes Gene encodes functional RNA molecule, mostly mRNA (also tRNA, rRNA, etc.) Three major regions of a prokaryotic gene: 1. Coding region: functional part of gene transcribed into RNA 2. Regulatory region: adjacent region for transcription initiation 3. Transcription termination signal: such as a hairpin loop
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Eukaryotic genes have introns and exons Intron: noncoding region of gene, excised by processing from primary transcript. It has unknown functions zero to many introns per eukaryote gene variable length, introns may be bulk of gene Exon: coding region of gene Alternate splicing what is alternate splicing? Is it important?
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Organisms differ in exon number
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