03 Gene function - NANOTECHNOLOGY Calls Rise for More...

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Calls Rise for More Research on Toxicology of Nanomaterials What is nanotechnology? Safe or sorry? Because a large percentage of their atoms lie on the surface, nanomaterials could be highly reactive--and potentially harmful. A rising chorus of government, industry, academic, and environmental leaders are calling for increases in funding to study adverse health and environmental effects of nanotechnology Without this, nanotechnology may be setting itself up for the same consumer backlash that has haunted genetically modified foods. NANOTECHNOLOGY
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Cosmetic industry: Blindness caused by cosmetics led to the notorious Draize test. It assesses irritation caused by chemicals by putting them into eyes of rabbits Thalidomide was given to pregnant women in the late 1950s to control morning sickness, it caused horrific birth defects. The government required animal-based tests to predict toxic effects of drugs Animal testing: More than a cosmetic change Alternative testing: 17 alternative tests have made it through validation — 11 use in vitro methods, another six involve refining in vivo tests to reduce the number of animals used
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How Many Genes in the Human Genome ? How are visiting the moon and sequencing our genome similar? The exact number of genes in the human genome is unknown Latest estimates are 24,500 or fewer protein-coding genes Virtually every disease is a failure of some protein…. Ultimately, this research will enable the diagnosis and treatment of most diseases, little is known about gene function
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Properties of RNA Transcription: copying nucleotide sequence of DNA into RNA. The DNA may be transcribed multiple times RNA is a single-stranded polynucleotide = flexible / 2º structures contains ribose rather than deoxyribose sugar contains the uracil instead of thymine Reactive groups are exposed rather than hidden = less stable chemically compared to DNA
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Two major classes of RNA Informational RNA: protein encoding mRNA The primary transcript in prokaryotes The mRNA is a processed transcript in eukaryotes 5’ and 3’ end modifications. What are they? intron removal (splicing). What system does this? translated into amino acid sequence Functional RNA tRNA: transports amino acids to the ribosome rRNA: structural and catalytic component of ribosomes snRNA: small nuclear RNAs are the structural and catalytic components of spliceosome snRNPs scRNA: small cytoplasmic RNAs direct protein traffic in cytoplasm
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Some of the biosynthetic pathways in which riboswitches are now implicated have been studied intensely for nearly three decades. So why were these control elements missed? The big question now is whether riboswitches represent an
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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2008 for the course BY 214 taught by Professor Woodworth during the Spring '07 term at Clarkson University .

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03 Gene function - NANOTECHNOLOGY Calls Rise for More...

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