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05 Inheritance of Single Gene Differences

05 Inheritance of Single Gene Differences - Intellectual...

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Although large expanses of the genome are unpatented, some genes have up to 20 patents Critics describe the growth in gene sequence patents as an intellectual property (IP) "land grab" over a finite number of human genes. Overly broad patents might block research Physical mapping of patent activity on chromosome 20. Each horizontal bar represents a unique patent. Orange represents the number of unique patent families in a region. Labels show the loci of highly patented genes Intellectual property and the human genome
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20% of human genes are claimed as US intellectual property (IP). This represents 4382 of the 23,688 of genes in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) gene database The 4270 patents are owned by 1156 different assignees Of the top ten gene patent assignees, nine are U.S.-based, including the University of California, Isis Pharmaceuticals, SmithKline Beecham, and Human Genome Sciences The top patent assignee is Incyte Pharmaceuticals, whose IP rights cover 2000 human genes As might be expected, heavily patented genes tend to have relevance to human health and disease BMP7, an osteogenic factor, and CDKN2A, a tumor suppressor gene, are the most highly patented genes in the genome (each claimed in 20 patents) Gene patent trivia
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fragmentation raises the possibility that innovators may incur considerable costs securing access to genes via structuring complex licensing agreements. Distribution of genes by number of patents The two genes with the most fragmented ownership (multiple companies claim rights) are PSEN2, the amyloid precursor protein (8 assignees for 9 patents), and BRCA1, the early onset breast cancer gene (12 assignees for 14 patents)
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Inheritance of single gene differences
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Mendel discovered the rules of inheritance In 1866 a Moravian monk, Gregor Mendel, published his studies describing the existence of hereditary determinants (factors) Mendel is called the father of genetics - his work became the basis for modern genetics He had severe debilitating test anxiety and repeatedly failed his teacher certification exams
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Meiotic chromosome segregation B/B homozygotes all meiocytes get B chromosomes B/b heterozygotes half get B and half get b chromosomes As a consequence of chromosome segregation, alleles of heterozygotes segregate equally (Mendel’s law) In meiosis, each of the four haploid products receives one of each kind of chromosome
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Neurospora: an example of equal segregation Equal segregation was first observed by Mendel in peas Readily observed using some fungi and protists in which all four haploid products of meiocyte (tetrad) can be analyzed Neurospora (bread mold)
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Crosses Cross: a controlled mating between two individuals. It is used to: 1. obtain the desired genotype 2. deduce the genotypes of parents Selfing: an individual with both reproductive organs can be mated (crossed) to itself. Possible in many plants × symbol is used to indicate a cross a haploid mating: A × a a diploid mating: A/a × A/a   A/–
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