Crusades - Marotta 1 Marc Marotta Dr. Jim Johnson English...

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Marotta 1 Marc Marotta Dr. Jim Johnson English 101-BB 12 October 2007 The Holy Crusades Between the years 1096 A.D. to 1291 A.D. Christians in Europe waged war on the Muslims in the Middle East and present day Turkey. For nearly 200 years, wave after wave of Crusaders, warriors for Christ, descended upon Jerusalem in attempt to reclaim the “Holy Land” in the name of Christianity. There were nine crusades, yet there were many smaller skirmishes in other places like the Balkans and Germany. The Crusades involved many people on both sides of the spectrum; in one corner there were the Roman Catholic Christians and the Pope, and in the other corner there were the Muslims and Saladin. Both sides had valid arguments to claim the “Holy Land,” although the Muslim settlers did have a key argument, they were already established there. Land was not the only thing being fought for; the Crusades were also about political, economical, and military power. The fall of the Byzantine Empire in the 11 th century created more chaos for the already unstable Eastern European countries. The Turkish Muslims and the Eastern Orthodox Christians both vied for control over the chaotic land which ultimately led to a split at Constantinople, which is present day Istanbul. Due to the weakened state of the region, Pope Urban the 2 nd gave blessing to the first Holy Crusade into Jerusalem. The First Crusade was sent to defeat two Turkish armies that were on march to attack Alexius the first kingdom of Byzantium. The first Crusaders conquered Antioch and Dorylaeum and soon gained victory over the Holy City, creating the “Kingdom of Jerusalem”. Following the first Crusade there was a period of fifty years where Muslims and Christians lived peacefully
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Marotta 2 with each other. In1147, Muslim warriors attacked the Christian town of Edessa. St. Bernard of Clairvaux called for a second Crusade to re-establish order in the, “Kingdom of Jerusalem”.
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This note was uploaded on 04/25/2008 for the course ENG 101 taught by Professor Siteman during the Fall '07 term at Suffolk.

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Crusades - Marotta 1 Marc Marotta Dr. Jim Johnson English...

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