Week8-OuterSolSyst, Chap18-V6

Week8-OuterSolSyst, Chap18-V6 - Jupiter – First and...

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Unformatted text preview: Jupiter – First and largest gas giant beyond the ice line. Talking Points : The visible telescope photo in this slide shows Jupiter’s atmosphere and clouds. Why do the clouds form bands? What is the great red spot? The great red spot is ~ 1.5 x diam. of Earth. How old is it? See below. Hurricane! 300 years Jupiter is 5.2 AU from the sun. Its day is 9.9hrs. Its year is 11.9 Earth years. Its radius is 11.2 x R Earth ; mass is 318 x M Earth What is Jupiter’s escape velocity? What mass does a planet need to allow direct capture of H and He from the solar nebula? What type of surface does Jupiter have? 61 km/sec = 5.4 x Earth’s escape vel. > 15 x M Earth Dense liquid. BUT gas/liquid divide has no boundary! Press Release in Buffalo News – March 23, 2005 Interior of Jupiter ow could an astronaut tell when his space ship had landed on Jupiter’s surface? hat part of the interior produces the DYNAMO EFFECT that accounts for Jupiter’s trong magnetic field? hat two motions cause the Dynamo Effect? upiter’s rocky core is made of solid metallic H, solid He, Fe, Ni, other heavy elements. As he descends through the atmosphere, the pressure and temperature rise. At some depth, H gas ==> H liquid. But there is NO physical boundary. In physics it’s called a Critical Point. This is where surface of Jupiter begins! Liquid metallic hydrogen mantle. Excellent conductor. Axial spin AND radial convection . Liquid hydrogen ~75% and liquid helium ~20% Jupiter’s Atmosphere The most abundant atmospheric gases are hydrogen (~78%) and helium (~20%) . How does this compare to the planet’s interior? sun? interstellar nebula? hat determines the height where various cloud layers form? hat is the meaning of the critical point in a gas-liquid phase diagram? Jupiter has three distinct clouds layers consisting of ice crystals of: 1) ammonia NH 3 , 2) ammonium hydrosulfide NH 4 HS 3) water H 2 O. Notice that in each case hydrogen is a major component. Why? Hydrogen is THE major component of the whole planet! Very similar compositions. Temperature (most important), and also pressure. Change from gas to liquid without a observable boundary. Belt-Zone Circulation in Jupiter’s Atmosphere Why do high and low pressure weather patterns form localized cyclonic patterns on Earth (top left), but bands around Jupiter (bottom left)? Which are areas of high pressure, and which low pressure – Zones or Belts? What causes the different colors? What separates the Belts and the Zones? All wind directions reverse between the northeren and southern hemispheres. Belts are low-P, Zones are high-P. Chemical differences. High velocity jet streams. This also happens on Earth. Compared to Earth: (1) Jupiter spins much faster; (2) it has a more uniform temp. (internal heating). Jupiter’s Magnetosphere Jupiter’s magnetic field is ~ 10 x Earth’s magnetic field....
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This note was uploaded on 04/25/2008 for the course PHY 122 taught by Professor Bernstein during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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Week8-OuterSolSyst, Chap18-V6 - Jupiter – First and...

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