PS%204_solutions

PS%204_solutions - BIOE 322/BIOS 332 Fundamentals of...

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Page 1 of 3 BIOE 322/BIOS 332 Fundamentals of Systems Physiology Spring 2008 Problem Set #4 Solutions 1. Blood doping increases the number of red blood cells in the blood, thereby increasing its oxygen-carrying capacity. 2. Symptoms resulting from decreased RBCs are associated with a decreased ability of the blood to carry oxygen: shortness of breath, weakness, fatigue, and pallor. Symptoms resulting from decreased platelets are associated with a decreased ability to form platelet plugs and clots: small areas of hemorrhage in the skin, bruises, and decreased ability to stop bleeding. Symptoms resulting from decreased WBCs include an increased susceptibility to infections. 3. Hypoventilation results in decreased blood oxygen levels, which stimulate erythropoiesis. Therefore, the number or RBCs increases. 4. The anemia results from too little hemoglobin. Since there is less hemoglobin, less hemoglobin is broken down into bilirubin. Consequently, less bilirubin is excreted into the intestine. With decreased bilirubin in the intestine, bacteria produce fewer of the pigments that normally color the feces. 5. The infusion of EDTA prevents both clotting pathways by chelating or binding to calcium ion (factor IV, see Table 13.4). EDTA directly blocks the extrinsic pathway by binding the Ca 2+ that serves as a cofactor for the conversion of factor VII to factor X; and similarly blocks the intrinsic pathway by interrupting the conversion of factor IX to factor X. Furthermore, the activation of factor X and subsequent conversion of prothrombin to thrombin along the common clotting pathway is inhibited in the absence of calcium ion. Aspirin, by contrast, exerts its effects on the blood platelets and has no direct effect on the blood-clotting cascade. Aspirin retards clotting by inhibiting the cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX) that catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid into
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PS%204_solutions - BIOE 322/BIOS 332 Fundamentals of...

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