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Unformatted text preview: 1 Displaying data with graphs BPS chapter 1 2006 W. H. Freeman and Company Objectives (BPS chapter 1) Picturing Distributions with Graphs Two types of variables/data: categorical and quantitative Ways to chart categorical data: bar graphs and pie charts Ways to chart quantitative data: histograms Interpreting histograms Time plots Two types of variables A variable can be either quantitative or categorical How do you decide if a variable is categorical or quantitative? Ask: What are the n individuals/subjects in the sample (of size n )? What is being recorded about those n individuals/subjects? Is it a number ( quantitative) or a statement ( categorical)? Can it be added/subtracted or averaged? 69 Diabetes Patient G 73 Accident Patient F 80 Heart disease Patient E 60 Lung cancer Patient D 75 Stroke Patient C 70 Stroke Patient B 56 Heart disease Patient A AGE AT DEATH DIAGNOSIS Individuals in sample Ways to chart categorical data Bar graphs Pie charts Example: Top 10 causes of death in the United States, 2001 26% 629,967 All other causes 1% 2% 32,238 Septicemia 10 2% 2% 39,480 Kidney disorders 9 2% 3% 53,852 Alzheimers disease 8 3% 3% 62,034 Flu and pneumonia 7 3% 4% 71,372 Diabetes mellitus 6 4% 5% 101,537 Accidents 5 5% 6% 123,013 Chronic respiratory 4 7% 9% 163,538 Cerebrovascular 3 23% 29% 553,768 Cancer 2 29% 37% 700,142 Heart disease 1 Percent of total deaths Percent of top 10s Counts Causes of death Rank For each individual who died in the United States in 2001, we record what was the cause of death. The table above is a summary of that information. 2 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 H e a r t d is e a s e s C a n c e r s C e r e b r o v a s c u l a r C h r o n ic r e s p ir a t o r y A c c id e n t s D ia b e t e s m e l it u s F l u & p n e u m o n ia A lz h e i m e r 's d i s e a s e K id n e y d i s o r d e r s S e p t ic e m i a Counts (x1000) Top 10 causes of death in the U.S., 2001 Bar graphs 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 H e a rt d is e a s e s C a n c e rs C e r e b r o v a s c u la r C h r o n ic r e s p ira to r y A c c id e n ts D ia b e te s m e l itu s F lu & p n e u m o n ia A lz h e im e r's d is e a s e K id n e y d is o rd e r s S e p tic e m ia Counts (x1000) Top 10 causes of death in the U.S., 2001 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 A c c id e n ts A lz h e im e r's d is e a s e C a n c e rs C e r e b ro v a s c u la r C h r o n ic r e s p ira to r y D ia b e te s m e l itu s F lu & p n e u m o n ia H e a rt d is e a s e s K id n e y d is o rd e r s S e p tic e m ia Counts (x1000) Percent of people dying from top 10 causes of death in the U.S., 2000 Pie charts Percent of deaths from top 10 causes Percent of deaths from all causes Child poverty before and after government interventionUNICEF, 1996 What does this chart tell you?...
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- Fall '07