2016_Midterm 2 Review - ESS 7 – Midterm 2 Study...

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Unformatted text preview: ESS 7 – Midterm 2 Study Guide (Winter 2016) Chapter 5: • Describe the three different kinds of material that can be erupted from a volcano • Compare and contrast shield volcanoes, composite cones (stratovolcanoes), and cinder cones. How are these explained by the composition of their lavas and other factors? • Why do some volcanic eruptions consist mostly of lava flows while others are explosive and do not produce lava flows? • Compare/contrast a volcanic island arc with a continental volcanic arc • Compare/contrast volcanic arcs with hot spot volcano chains • Identify some of the major volcanic hazards and explain how they develop • How do geologists predict volcanic eruptions? Interlude B/Chapter 6: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Describe the difference between chemical and physical weathering ( including different mechanisms and weathering products) Describe why some silicate minerals are more susceptible to chemical weathering than others Describe the four steps to sedimentary rock formation Describe how a clastic sedimentary rock forms Explain how biochemical limestone and chert form What is the difference between fossiliferous limestone and chemical limestone? Describe how grain size and shape and sorting change as sediments move downstream How does particle size determine transport distance? Describe how changes in the energy of the transport system (e.g. water flowing in a stream) control sediment deposition Describe how chemical sedimentary rocks form. Give an example of this type of rock Describe how cross beds form and how you can read the current direction from them Describe how a turbidity current forms graded bedding Compare deposits of a glacier with those of a deep marine deposit Why is quartz the main component of sand? What is lithification? Chapter 7: Compare and contrast the different metamorphic processes Which processes lead to a change in the mineral composition rather than just a change in the mineral size or shape? Identify the causes of metamorphism What is the general depth range of most metamorphic processes? Compare and contrast compression, pressure, and shear. What is the difference between inequant and equant minerals? Compare and contrast the two subdivisions of metamorphic rocks How does metamorphic grade impact the ultimate foliated rock type that will form? How does one go from a slate to a gneiss? How does one tell apart a slate, phyllite, schist, and/or gneiss? Compare and contrast the various types of metamorphism. How does tectonic environment impact foliation? How does tectonic environment impact metamorphic grade? Explain the formation of blueschist Chapter 8 Compare and contrast strike-­‐slip and dip-­‐slip faults Given a diagram of a fault, determine the type of fault and the direction of movement Given a diagram of a fault, determine the likely tectonic environment associated with the fault Describe the elastic rebound theory and slip-­‐stick movement Compare and contrast P, S, and Surface waves Locate the epicenter on a graph based on data from seismograms Compare and contrast the Mercalli Intensity and the Moment Magnitude Describe some of the impacts associated with earthquakes (beyond the shaking) ...
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