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Wk 6 Days 1 & 2 - PNUR104 -On- Learning Guide – OxygenationRead Potter et. al., Chapter 39What is the significance of this need?1.To provide oxygen to cells for life & function2.Involves all systems, but mainly the respiratory& circulatorysystems3.Any impairment in either system will affect breathing or transport4.Respiratory systemperforms ventilation & diffusion of gases in lungs5.Circulatory systemperforms the transport & diffusion to capillaries & cells-Primary Functions of lungs is gas exchange-Oxygen from inspired air diffuses from alveoli in the lungs into blood in the pulmonary-capillaries.-Carbon dioxide, a waste product produced during cell metabolism, diffuses from bloodinto the alveoli and is exhaled.-Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs at the alveolar-capillary membrane-The organs of the respiratory system facilitate this gas exchange and protect the bodyfrom foreign matter, such as pathogensStructure of Respiratory SystemList the parts that make up the Upper Respiratory tract____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________List the parts that make up the Lower Respiratory Tract__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Define the following Key Terms:Hypoxia – insufficient oxygen levelsHypoxemia – level of oxygen in the blood is less than normalVentilation – intentional induction of outdoor air into a spaceWork of breathing – the energy expended to inhale and exhale a breathHypoventilation– very shallow breath1
Hyperventilation– very deep, rapid respirationCyanosis – bluish discoloration of skin and mucousRespiration- the process of gas exchangeAtelectasis-complete of partial collapse of the entirelung or area of the liningTachypnea –abnormally fast respiratory rateBradypnea – Abnormally slow respiratory rateApnea – absence of respirationSleep Apnea –periodic cessation of breathing during sleepDyspnea – difficulty of laboured breathingOrthopnea – the ability to breath only when in an upright positionCheyne-Stokes – rhythmic waxing and waning of reparation from very deepbreathing to very shallow breathing with periods of temporary apneaStridor – A harsh crowing sound made on inhalation caused by constriction ofthe upper airwayHypercapnia – the increase in partial pressure of carbon dioxide 44mmHgPerfusion – passage of blood constituents through vessels of the circulatorysystemIschemia – deficiency of blood supply caused by obstruction of circulation to thebody partAdventitious Breath Sounds– Wheezes (Rhonchi), Crackles, Stridor, Pleural rubFactors affecting the Need of Oxygenation:1.Lifespan Considerations- respiratory rate decreaseswith ageNewborns -R= 40-80bpm, P=80-150, BP = 65/40Infants and Toddlers –School-aged Children and adolescents –Young and middle adults –Older persons –Adults**Need to know adult norms& check patient baselinefor changesR = 12--20-Potter et. al., p 527P = 60-100 -BP =120/80-Note:If pt. has had lymph node removal in arm & donotassess B/P in that arm2.Environment-altitude, temperature, and pollution affects oxygenation.

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