Lect 26 water PP outline

Lect 26 water PP outline - Water Use and Management WATER...

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Water Use and Management WATER RESOURCES Hydrologic Cycle Describes the circulation of water as it: Evaporates from land, water, and organisms. Enters the atmosphere. Condenses and precipitates back to the earth’s surfaces. Moves underground or overland runoff Solar energy drives the hydrologic cycle by evaporating surface water. Evaporation Sublimation Freezer Burn Hydrologic Cycle Hydrologic Cycle Humidity - Amount of water vapor in the air. Relative Humidity - Amount of water vapor in the air expressed as a percentage of the maximum amount that can be held at that temperature. Saturation Point - When a volume of air contains as much water vapor as it can hold at a given temperature. Dew Point - Temperature at which condensation occurs for a given amount of water. Condensation Nuclei - Tiny particles that facilitate condensation. Smoke, dust, sea salt, spores. Average Annual Precipitation Regions of Plenty and Regions of Deficit Three principal factors control global water deficits and surpluses. Global atmospheric circulation Prevailing Winds Topography Topography and Precipitation Mountains act as cloud formers and rain catchers. Air sweeps up the windward side of a mountain, pressure decreases, and the air cools. Eventually saturation point is reached, and moisture in the air condenses. Rain falls on the mountaintop. Cool, dry air descends and warms, absorbing moisture from other sources. (Rain Shadow) Rain Shadow MAJOR WATER COMPARTMENTS So, where do we find the Earth’s water? In other words, how much of the Earth’s water is found in the various compartments of the hydrologic cycle? MAJOR WATER COMPARTMENTS
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Oceans Together, oceans contain more than 97% of all liquid water in the world. Contain 90% of world’s living biomass. Moderate earth’s temperature. Average residence time of water in the ocean is about 3,000 years. MAJOR WATER COMPARTMENTS Major Water Compartments Glaciers, Ice, and Snow 2.4% of world’s water is classified fresh. 90% in glaciers, ice caps, and snowfields. Now, Antarctic glaciers contain nearly 85% of all ice in the world. Greenland and polar sea ice – 10% Sea ice comes from ocean water, but salt is excluded during freezing. MAJOR WATER COMPARTMENTS Major Water Compartments Groundwater Second largest reservoir of fresh water. Infiltration - Process of water percolating through the soil and into fractures and permeable rocks. Zone of Aeration - Upper soil layers that hold both air and water. Zone of Saturation - Lower soil layers where all spaces are filled with water. Water Table - Top of Zone of Saturation.
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Lect 26 water PP outline - Water Use and Management WATER...

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