Athens Journal of EducationNovember 2014295A Model of Formative Assessmentin Music EducationBy Urban KordesBarbara Sicherl Kafol†Ada Holcar Brunauer‡Qualitative research has provided insight into how studentsexperience and perceive the learning process in music. A model oflearning, teaching, assessment and evaluation has been researchedand reconstructed together with students. As a basic investigativeapproach the method of action research has been used. Two actioncycles were planned and executed. Findings of the study in whichstudents were given instruction with an emphasis on the developmentof metacognitive strategies or developing proactive and self-regulatory attitudes to learning, evaluation and assessment, broadenunderstanding of how to integrate assessment and evaluation intothe learning process, and monitor all processes of music learning.IntroductionBamford points out that assessment of pupils’ knowledge should be ascreative as possible. Methods of assessment and evaluation should take intoaccount various kinds of learning which enable pupils to express themselves,create and evaluate in arts education, including music education (Bamford,2009). Given the complex nature of learning responding, which in musicincludes learning processes and objectives in the affective, psychomotor andcognitive domains, it is necessary to consider all three areas when establishingcriteria for assessment and evaluation in music education (Sicherl-Kafol,1997).Standardized national tests still represent a great problem for teaching(Bresler, 2010),as many teachers teach for the tests, even though they areaware of the fact that those tests do not provide authentic feedback on pupils'musical knowledge. Authentic evaluation in music education should be basedon the most important (rather than the most convenient) dimensions of musicalknowing, i.e. on the processes and achievements of musical learning in theareas of performing, listening and creating which include holistic learningresponse (affective, psychomotor and cognitive) and represent the basis forAssociate Professor, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.†Associate Professor, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.‡Senior Consultant, National Education Institute Slovenia, Slovenia.
Vol. 1, No. 4Kordes et al.: A Model of Formative Assessment in Music Education296assessment and evaluation criteria in music education (Sicherl-Kafol, 2004).This means process oriented assessment with flexible methods of evaluatingmusical achievements instead of the mere use of standard aptitude andknowledge tests, as “our tests are meant to measure what is least essential inthe arts” (Aróstegui, 2003, str. 112). In her book Beyond Testing (Gipps,1994a), Caroline Gipps defines this as a shift from a culture of tests andinterrogations to a culture of assessment and evaluation at different stages oflearning in its various forms.