learning - 1 Lecture Outline • Introduction to Learning...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Lecture Outline • Introduction to Learning • Pavlov’s Dogs and Classical Conditioning • Subtleties of Classical Conditioning • Fear Conditioning • Operant Conditioning Chapter 4: Learning 2 Learning to get by • Survival is the name of the game for all living things • Nature provides organisms with certain inherited skills • Reflexes : simple reactions – e.g., knee-jerk response, sucking response in babies • Fixed Action Pattern : series of behaviors performed in an orderly sequence – e.g., birds heading south as days get shorter • More evolved species rely less on repetition of simple reflexes and more on their capacity for adapting to the environment 1. Observe environmental conditions 2. Respond 3. Manage outcome a. If positive, continue on b. If negative, adjust response 3 Learning • Learning : refers to an enduring change in the way an organism responds based on its experience – Memory: rehearsal and associations formed between items – Problem Solving: mental sets or repeated use of the same strategy • Learning relies on one’s ability to form new associations and ignore old ones that are no longer relevant • Conditioning : learning associations between events that occur in an organism’s environment • Three assumptions of learning theories: 1. Responses are learned rather than innate 2. Learning is adaptive 3. Our experiments can uncover the laws of learning 4 Habituation • Habituation : the strength of a response to a stimulus decreases as exposure to the stimulus is repeated • Stimulus-specific information stored in memory and stimulus no longer registers as response-worthy • One of the simplest forms of learning: – Helpful 1. Allows us to grow accustomed to negative stimuli that do not demand an immediate response (e.g., snake in an aquarium) 2. Narrows the range of stimuli that elicits an alarm and allows us to move on to something else 5 Habituation • Habituation : the strength of a response to a stimulus decreases as exposure to the stimulus is repeated • Stimulus-specific information stored in memory and stimulus no longer registers as response-worthy • One of the simplest forms of learning: – Helpful 1. Allows us to grow accustomed to negative stimuli that do not demand an immediate response (e.g., snake in an aquarium) 2. Narrows the range of stimuli that elicits an alarm and allows us to move on to something else – Harmful • Lack of concern for stimuli that actually do pose a threat (i.e., complacency) Just a little taste YUM !!! 6 Lecture Outline • Introduction to Learning • Pavlov’s Dogs and Classical Conditioning • Subtleties of Classical Conditioning • Fear Conditioning • Operant Conditioning Chapter 4: Learning 7 Ivan Pavlov • Pavlov was a Russian scientist who discovered the phenomenon of classical conditioning • Pavlov was trained as a physiologist • Interested in the digestive system of animals – specifically saliva 8 Pavlov’s Discovery...
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2008 for the course PSYC 1101 taught by Professor Leader during the Spring '07 term at Georgia Tech.

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learning - 1 Lecture Outline • Introduction to Learning...

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