Chpt4 - Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution...

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Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry
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Solutions: Homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances. The solvent is present in greatest abundance. All other substances are solutes .
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Electrolytes Electrolytes are substances that dissociate into ions when dissolved in water. A nonelectrolyte may dissolve in water, but it does not dissociate into ions when it does so.
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Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes Soluble ionic compounds tend to be electrolytes. Molecular compounds tend to be nonelectrolytes, except for acids and bases.
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Solvation When an ionic substance dissolves in water, the water pulls the individual ions from the crystal and hydrates them. This process is called solvation . The ions are dissociated when the substance dissolves.
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Electrolytes A strong electrolyte dissociates completely when dissolved in water. A weak electrolyte only dissociates partially when dissolved in water.
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Strong Electrolytes Are… Strong acids Strong bases Soluble ionic salts
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Precipitation Reactions Precipitation reactions are reactions that result in the formation of an insoluble product. A precipitate is an insoluble solid formed by a reaction in solution. When one mixes ions that form compounds that are insoluble (as could be predicted by the solubility guidelines), a precipitate is formed.
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Solubility Rules Solubility is the amount of a substance that can dissolve in a given quantity of solvent.
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Predicting Precipitation Reactions 1. Note the ions present in the reactants 2. Consider the possible combinations of the cations and anions. 3. Use solubility rules to determine in any of the possible combinations are insoluble compounds Ag NO 3 ( aq ) + K Cl ( aq ) → AgCl ( s ) + KNO 3 ( aq )
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Metathesis (Exchange) Reactions Metathesis comes from a Greek word that means “to transpose” It appears the ions in the reactant compounds exchange, or transpose, ions Examples are precipitation reactions and acid-base reactions. H NO 3 ( aq ) + Na OH ( aq ) → H O ( l ) + NaNO 3 ( aq ) Ag NO 3 ( aq ) + K Cl ( aq ) → AgCl ( s ) + KNO 3 ( aq )
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Metathesis Reactions To complete and balance a metathesis equation Determine what ions are present in the reactants Write chemical formulas of products by combining the cation of one reactant with the anion of the second reactant 1. Balance the equation Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + CsI ( aq ) → ??
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Chpt4 - Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution...

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