Chpt10 - Chapter 10 Gases Characteristics of Gases • Tend...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10 Gases Characteristics of Gases • Tend to have low molecular weights • Elements or molecular compounds composed of nonmetals • Substances that are liquid or solid under ordinary conditions can also exist as gases called vapors . • Unlike liquids and solids, gases – Expand to fill their containers – Are highly compressible – Have extremely low densities – Gas atoms or molecules are very far apart – Always form homogeneous mixtures • Pressure is the amount of force applied to an area. Pressure • Atmospheric pressure is the weight of air per unit of area. P = F A Units of Pressure • Pascals – 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 • Bar – 1 bar = 10 5 Pa = 100 kPa Units of Pressure • mm Hg or torr – These units are literally the difference in the heights measured in mm ( h ) of two connected columns of mercury. • Atmosphere – 1.00 atm = 760 torr Standard Pressure • Normal atmospheric pressure at sea level. • It is equal to – 1.00 atm – 760 torr (760 mm Hg) – 101.325 kPa Manometer Used to measure the difference in pressure between atmospheric pressure and that of a gas in a vessel. The Gas Laws • Four variables are needed to define the physical condition of a gas – Temperature (T) – Pressure (P) – Volume (V) – Amount of gas (n) • The equations that express the relationships among these variables are the gas laws Boyle’s Law: PV Relationship Boyle’s Law states that the volume of a fixed quantity of gas at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the pressure. Boyle’s Law: PV Relationship A plot of V versus P results in a curve The value of the constant depends on the amount...
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Chpt10 - Chapter 10 Gases Characteristics of Gases • Tend...

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