Exam 3 - Memory Memory the persistence of learning over time The Computer information Processing Model Encoding getting information into our brain o Do

Exam 3 - Memory Memory the persistence of learning over...

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Memory 3/15/16 03/15/2016 ° Memory – the persistence of learning over time ° ° The Computer information Processing Model Encoding – getting information into our brain o Do this by responding to the environment and by paying attention to something Consolidation – organizing & preparing for storage – effortful o If you don’t make an effort it wont go to the next part Storage – retaining information over time o Ex. Leaving water in an ice tray in the freezer for a while until it turns to ice Retrieval – getting information back out ° Information Processing: Atkinson & Shiffrin Model Dual-store first proposed by William James in 1890 o Claimed Short-term and long-term memory are different Information-Processing Model o Proposed by Atkinson & Shiffrin in 1968 with three memory stores, organized by duration Modified by Baddeley to include working memory 1986 o Baddeley added working memory, central executive & 3 types of short term memory o ***ASK AMANDA FOR THE PHOTO OF THE CHART ° 3 Kinds of Memory: Sensory Register
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o Afterimage or echo o Environmental information picked up and transformed by sensory receptors o Iconic – Visual o Echoic = Auditory Short term Memory o Holds a few items briefly o Limited capacity (7 + or – 2) o Interference prone o Found in the PFC – Prefrontal Cortex o Mr. Digit Man o Assessment of short term memory –digit span o Digit Memory Span: Age: # of digits 2-3 yrs 2 5 yrs 4 7 yrs 5 10 yrs 6 13 yrs 6-7 o Working memory (another function of short term) Is the active form Changes information into another form
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o Executive consolidator control function that pulls all of the sensory channels into one episodic thing Long term Memory o Holds information together for hours, days or years o Relatively permanent o “unlimited capacity” o Two long term memory systems: Conscious: Explicit – declarative Available to our awareness You can tell me exactly what you know Hippocampus Un-effortful, automatic processing of hippocampus o Space, time and frequency Semantic (1 st lvl) Meaning, facts without reference to time or place of learning Episodic Personal, specific experience at a particular time, in a particular space Unconscious: Implicit Procedural Motor “Muscle memory” Skills
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Balance and Equilibrium Cerebellar ° Recognition vs. Recall Snow white and the Seven Dwarfs o Happy o Sleepy o Doc o Sneezy o Grumpy o Dopey o Bashful Recognition is better because it is easier, more efficient in remembering the most for accessing memory Age Progression: o 4 yr old: Recall - 2-4 items Recognize: 11-12 items o 8-10 yr old: Recall: 6-9 items Recognize: 12 items o Adult: Recall: 10-11 items Recognize: 12 items Memory is organized by Sound (phonetically) Letter(visually) Meaning (semantically) Remembering mistakes related to these categories
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° Memory Failure Encoding – acquisition failure o Requires attention and effort o
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  • Spring '08
  • Michalski
  • Working Memory, Memory processes, Intelligence quotient

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