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Unformatted text preview: Final Review Study Guide Cumulative Difference between prokaryote and eukaryote- &#2; Eukaryotes- have a more complex cellular structure, this cell type is the basis for multicellularity, small cell no nucleus &#2; Can undergo meiosis (sexual reproduction) o Further generate genetic diversity by (re)combining genes from parents s &#2; Eukaryotes- Membrane bound nucleus with tightly bound DNA and have cytoskeleton the cell skeleton o A network of fibers running through the cytoplasm and helps maintain shape and allows for help from predation &#2; Prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission (cloning) and have circular DNA in nucleoid region Early Environmental Characteristics- &#2; Hadean and Archean- lack of oxygen, high UV content, no ozone, liquid water, high CO2 &#2; Proterozoic and Paleozoic- Oxygen, marine life What four major elements make up life on Earth? &#2; Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen What 3 fundamental requirements for all life on Earth? &#2; Carbon, Energy and Water Different types of evidence for the earliest life on Earth? &#2; Evidence comes from the analysis of carbon isotopes in ancient metamorphic rock, there is geological evidence What are the ages for the oldest evidence for all life and what is the age of the Earth? &#2; Chemical evidence (~3.85 Ga) &#2; Stromatolites (~3.5 Ga) &#2; Microfossils (~3.2-3.5 Ga) &#2; Age of Earth- 4.6 Ga What is endosymbiosis and how does it relate to the origin of complex cell types? &#2; An early eukaryotic- some prokaryote species may have evolved specializing unfolding of their membranes that compartmentalized certain cell functions &#2; Both organisms gain mutual benefit, bacterium is protected by larger cell and the host gets its waste products oxidized an thus is also protected &#2; 1. Biochemistry and morphology of the mitochondria and chloroplast are quite similar to modern bacteria &#2; 2. These organelle are enclosed by their own membrane (they are outside of the cell) &#2; 3. They have their own reproductive mechanism- they multiply by dividing inside the cell DNA/ RNA sequences from these organelle is most closely related to bacterial DNA, not eukaryotic DNA What is a metazoan? Complex multicellular animals that have structural genes and have regulatory genes that make sure that cells develop in the right places Snowball Earth- A. Snowball Earth- Snowball Earth- there are times when glaciers occurred in (or near) equatorial regions AT SEA LEVEL- 710, 635, 585 Ma o Ice covered ocean down to equator, these extreme ice ages may have lasted for millions of years, didnt lead to mass extinction...
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- Winter '08