Chapter 8 - Chapter 8 Social Institutions Family and...

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Chapter 8  Social Institutions: Family and Religion A.  Social Institutions - organized patterns of beliefs and behavior that are centered on basic  social needs Cultural Universals- general practices found in every culture, such as sports, food  preparation, and funeral ceremonies B. Functionalist View - To survive, any society or relatively permanent group must accomplish  five major tasks: 1. Replacing personnel- Any group or society must replace personnel when they  die, leave, or become incapacitated. Achieved through immigration, annexation,  acquisition of slaves, or sexual reproduction 2. Teaching New Recruits- No group or society can survive if many of its  members reject the established behavior and responsibilities, the group or society  must encourage recruits to learn and accept its values and customs  3. Producing and distributing goods and services- Any relative permanent group  or society must provide and distribute desired goods and services to its members,  and must establish a set of rules for the allocation of resources  4. Preserving Order- Failure to preserve order and defend against conquest leads to  the death not only of a people but of a culture  5. Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose- People must feel motivated to  continue as members of groups or society in order to fulfill the first four  requirement C.  Conflict View -
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