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Ch 9 - Ch 9 Types of Intelligence Intelligence solving...

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Ch. 9: Types of Intelligence Intelligence: solving problems “well,” AND Understand and learn complex material, BOTH within a reasonable amount of time. IQ: score on an intelligence test, originally based on comparing mental age to chronological age, but later based on norms and used as a measure of general intelligence Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: most widely used intelligence test; consists of both verbal and performance subtests IQ and response times (RT) are consistently (but weakly) correlated Third variable problem: Ease of processing is related to both speed and accuracy Relationship between working memory and intelligence: Focused attention Prioritizing Strategizing Speed or capacity of articulatory loop? Theories of Intelligence Unitary views Posit an overall or general intellectual capacity Multiple intelligences views Posit independent abilities Psychometrics Assess relatedness of different measures Spearman’s g (“general”) factor: single intellectual capacity that underlies the positive correlations among different tests of intelligence Factor analysis: statistical method that uncovers the particular attributes that make scores more or less similar; the more similar the scores, the more strongly implicated are shared underlying factors “g” versus specific factors (“s”): aspects of performance particular to a given kind of processing; variations within related abilities “g” accounts for differences across people; “s” accounts for differences within people. See figure 9.2: Carroll’s Three-Stratum Theory: General intelligence that permeates all other mental abilities Broad abilities that capture variations on a set of highly related tests Fluid intelligence: according to Cattell and Horn, intelligence that underlies the creation of novel solutions to problems Crystallized intelligence: relies on knowing facts and having the ability to use and combine them
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