Essentialism -Group difference is natural and primordial, reflecting unique inherited traits and/or separate histories of different groupsa.Constructivism -Group difference is a social artifact; social classifications vary through history and between societiesb.Strategic essentialism: group difference is ultimately arbitrary, BUT embracing it can increase solidarity in political strugglesc.Three types of Identity Theories1."What, then, is a race? It is a vast family of human beings, generally of common blood and language, always of common history, traditions, and impulses, who are both voluntarily and involuntarily striving together for the accomplishment of certain more or less vividly concieved ideals of life." ("The Conservation of Races" , in C. Lamert, Social Theory [Westview, 1999], p. 158).a.W.E.B. Dubois (1868-1963)2."It may be obvious that there are a large series of genetic traits that vary, and vary considerably, among persons. It is not at all obvious that these have to be coded as three, five, or fifteen reified
This is the end of the preview.
access the rest of the document.
Immanuel Wallerstein, Ethnic group, group difference