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GHUM EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE - GHUM EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE The...

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GHUM EXAM 1- STUDY GUIDE The Existence of God: 1. Three similarities and differences among the faiths of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. What concept of God underlies these faiths? -All three believe in stories of Adam and Eve, they do slightly differ from the texts in each religion. All three faiths have a story of Abraham and the 10 commandments, as well as they all have prayer as a part of their religious life. One difference among the three faiths are the different ways they believe in the word of God, Islam has the Koran, Christians have Jesus Christ, and Jews have the Torah. Another difference is the way the different religions are called to prayer; the Jews are called by horn, the Muslims by gong, and the Christians by bell. A major difference between Muslims, Jews, and Christians are that Muslims believe that someone who looked like Jesus Christ died on a cross; the Christians believe that Jesus was the son of God and he died on the cross, and the Jews believe that the son of God has yet to come. They all believe that God is a compassionate being. 2. Briefly explain the five arguments for the existence of God given by St. Thomas Aquinas. -The first argument states that there is change and argues that there must be an Unmoved Mover that originates all change but itself is not moved. The second argument is from causation and argues that there must be a first cause to explain the existence of cause. The third argument is from contingency and argues that because there are dependent beings, humans for example, there must be an independent or necessary being on which the dependent beings rely for their subsistence. The fourth argument is from excellence and it argues that because there are degrees of excellence, there must be a perfect being from whence come all excellences. The fifth and final argument is from the harmony of things: There is a harmony of nature that calls for an explanation. The only sufficient explanation is that there is a divine designer who planned such harmony.
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3. Describe the argument from design given by William Paley. What similarities exist between a watch and a world, such that we are lead to infer the existence of an intelligent grand designer? How does Paley respond to the objections that (1) we did not see an Intelligent Designer make the world and (2) the world is irregular and imperfect?
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