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Chem Final Study Sheet

Chem Final Study Sheet - Chem Final Study Sheet Homogenous...

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Chem Final Study Sheet Homogenous mixtures are sometimes called solutions. Precision is the repeatability. Accuracy is the correctness of the measurement. Extensive Properties depend on the amount present. Intensive Properties are independent of the sample size. Specific heat is the quantity of heat energy required to change temperature of 1 gram 1 degree C. Specific gravity is the density of the substance divided by the density of water. Isotopes differ in the number of neutrons. Horizontal rows are periods. Columns are groups. Group IA is alkaline metals. Group IIA is alkaline earth metals. Group VIIA is the halogens. Group VIIIA is the noble gases. Quantized means energies of electrons is limited to a certain value. Orbitals are the region of space electrons occupy. Shells are the principal energy level of an orbital and are designated by n=1,2,3,… The average energy of a shell is increasing in order 1<2<3… The number of electrons in a shells is 2n^2 Subshells are sublevels of shell and are labeled s,p,d,f , energy is increasing s<p<d<f l = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n-1 An orbital is the region in which an electron with a certain energy level is likely to be found. All orbitals within a subshell have the same energy. Orbital volume and distance from the nucleus increase with values of n. m starts at negative 'l,' runs by whole numbers to zero and then goes to positive 'l.' Assign +1/2 to the first electron Electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons within an atom. Hund’s rule : every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin. Lewis Octet Rule: Atoms combine and form bonds either by transferring electrons to form ions or by sharing electrons in covalent bonds until each is surrounded by eight valence electrons. A cation is a positive ion. An anion is a negative ion. Ionic bonds form between atoms by transferring electrons. Ionic compounds usually consist of a metal and a nonmetal. A polar covalent bond is formed when two atoms share electrons unequally.
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