PSYCH NOTES TEST 4 - Personality Personality o o o o...

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Personality  08:02 Personality The pattern of enduring characteristics that differentiate people – those behaviors that make each of us unique o Distinctive o Relatively stable o Relatively consistent o Pattern of behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions Major Theoretical Perspectives Biological Psychodynamic Behavioral Cognitive Humanistic Psychodynamic Approach Structure of Personality (iceberg) Psychodynamic Theory o Freud’s theory that our behavior is triggered by forces within personality of which we are not aware Unconscious o A part of personality of which a person is not aware
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Emphasis on childhood experience Structure of personality analogous to an iceberg… o Id Raw, unorganized, inborn part of the personality (id is the kid) Libido : psychic energy that fuels primitive drives Pleasure principle : Immediate reduction of tension and the maximization of satisfaction o Ego Strives to balance the desires of the id and the realities of the objective outside the world Reality principle : instinctual energy is restrained in order to maintain the safety of the individual and help integrate the person into society The executive/manager o Superego Last to develop; represents the rights and wrongs of society as taught and modeled by a person’s parents, teachers, and other significant individuals Learned Conscience : prevents us from behaving in a morally improper way Ego-ideal: represents the “perfect person” we wish we were Defense mechanisms o Unconscious strategies that people use to reduce anxiety by concealing the source from themselves and others o Repression : unacceptable or unpleasant impulses are pushed back into the unconscious o Regression : people behave as if they were at an earlier stage of development o Projection : people attribute unwanted impulses and feelings to someone else o Displacement: expression of an unwanted feeling or thought is redirected from a more threatening, powerful person to a weaker one Learning Approaches Learning Theorists : personality is a collection of learned behavior patterns o Interested in how to change them Social cognitive approaches o Emphasizes the influence of a person’s cognitions – thoughts, feelings, expectations, and values – in determining personality Self-efficacy o Belief in one’s personal capabilities Self-esteem o Component of personality that encompasses put positive and negative evaluations Humanistic Approaches Emphasizes people’s basic goodness and their tendency to grow to higher levels of functioning Unconditional positive regard: An attitude of acceptance and respect on the part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does (I love you no matter what) Self Actualization : a state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential Biological Approaches Suggest that important components of personality are inherited
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PSYCH NOTES TEST 4 - Personality Personality o o o o...

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