Exam _2 A&P

Exam _2 A&P - BIOL 2024 Exam#2 Study Guide Chapters...

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BIOL 2024 Exam #2 Study Guide Chapters 17-19: Cardiovascular System Know the composition and general characteristics of blood, including plasma components, normal population percentages of the different blood cells, normal pH range of blood, and the hemoglobin concentration found in erythrocytes o 55% plasma (mostly water; albumin 60% plasma proteins) tbl 17.1 page 649 composition of plasma o 45% formed elements; tbl 17.2 summary of formed elements of the blood Erythrocytes 44% Leukocytes <1% Granulocytes o Neutrophil o Eosinophil o Basophil Agranulocytes o Lymphocyte o monocyte Platelets <1% o pH 7.35-7.45 o Erythrocytes are over 97% hemoglobin Know (in general) the sequence of events involved in blood clotting (page 665) o A complex substance called prothrombin activator is formed Two pathways to prothrombin activator: intrinsic or extrinsic o Prothrombin activator converts a plasma protein called prothrombin into thrombin, an enzyme o Thrombin catalyzes the joining of fibrinogen molecules present in plasma to fibrin mesh, which traps blood cells and effectively seals the hole until the blood vessel can be permanently repaired Be familiar with both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood clotting (page 665), the key molecules/ions common to both pathways (page 665-6), and the pivotal molecule that causes platelets to aggregate. o Intrinsic Initiates clotting of blood outside the body Slower All factors needed for clotting are present in the blood o Extrinisic faster o Both Pivitol components: negatively charged membranes, particularly those on platelets containing *PF 3 Require ionic calcium and involves the activation of a series of procoagulants, each functioning as an enzyme to activate the next procoagulant in the sequence Factor X + Ca + PF 3 + factor V = prothrombin activator
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Understand the ABO and Rh blood typing systems (page 669). Understand the unique components of each blood type and what causes incompatibilities between mismatched blood types (page 670). o RBC plasma membranes bear highly specific glycoproteins (antigens) at their external surfaces, which identify each of us as unique from all others. One RBC protein may be recognized as foreign if transfused into someone with a different RBC type, and the transfused cells may be agglutinated and destroyed Understand the process of hematopoiesis (651), the cell type precursors and their locations o Blood cell formation occurs in the red bone marrow. Within the network of reticular connective tissue bordering on wide blood capillaries called blood sinusoids, there are immature blood cells, macrophages, fat cells, and reticular cells. As they mature, they migrate through the walls of the sinusoids into the
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Exam _2 A&amp;P - BIOL 2024 Exam#2 Study Guide Chapters...

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