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Biology Review 8-11

Biology Review 8-11 - Biology Review 8-11 ~DNA STRUCTURE...

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Biology Review 8-11 ~DNA STRUCTURE AND REPLICATION~ DNA is the genetic material --some viruses can infect the host cell by injecting their DNA Phage reproductive cycle --attaches to bacterial cell, injects DNA, makes more phages, cell lyses and releases phages. Nucleotide monomers --sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. S&P are the backbone. DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides --DNA is a nucleic acid made up of nucleotide monomers. --Pyrimidines = T&C, Purines = A&G --RNA uses U instead of T, HCNOP DNA is a double stranded helix --Found by Watson and Crick based by Franklin, Three dimensional, two polynucleotide strands wrapped around each other. --hydrogen bonds hold bases together, A pairs with T, C pairs with G Replication --depends on base pairing, starts with separation of DNA strands, each strand becomes a template. --is a complex process b/c DNA must unwind. --happens quickly. With few errors-proofread and repair. The flow of genetic information --genotype is the genetic makeup, phenotype is the expression, genotype is expressed though proteins, a gene is a line of nucleotides, genes specify how to build polypeptides. From DNA to protein --DNA is transcribed to RNA and translated into a polypeptide. Transcription --produces messages in RNA form, the DNA unzips and RNA nucleotide bases pair up on one side, the RNA peels off and the DNA rejoins. Transcription --has 3 steps 1. Initiation 2. Elongation 3. Termination Eukaryotic RNA is processed before leaving the nucleus --transcription~ RNA is used to make proteins = mRNA, mRNA carries the message to…, Translation~ ribosome attaches to mRNA, tRNA translates the message to a polypeptide. Translation --genetic info written in codons is translated to amino acid sequences, triplets of bases are codons, they specify the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide, almost all organisms use the exact same genetic code. The genetic code --each codon is translated into an amino acid, start=AUG, stop=UAA, UAG, UGA. Review --DNA>RNA>Protein, the codon sequence in DNA spells out structure of polypeptide. Mutations can change the meaning of genes
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--are changes in base sequence or some error in DNA mutagens, Substituting, inserting, or deleting nucleotides alters a gene. ~VIRUSES AND CLONING~ Viruses and genetic material --viruses are genes packaged in protein The lytic cycle --it is replicated, transcribed and translated in a bacterium; the DNA and protein assemble into new phages and burst out of the cell.
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Biology Review 8-11 - Biology Review 8-11 ~DNA STRUCTURE...

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