Poli 136a Study Guide

Poli 136a Study Guide - GENOCIDE IN RWANDA: Facts Two major...

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GENOCIDE IN RWANDA: Facts - Two major ethnic groups: Tutsi 17% , Hutu 82% , Twa (1% - Aug. 1993 – General Romeo Dallaire (UN Force Commander in Rwanda) traveled to Africa to arrange a peace treaty between the Rwandan govt in Kigali & a rebel army - Jan. 1994 – informant emerged & revealed that a group of Hutu extremists were planning to attack Tutsis and all moderate Hutu leaders as well as Belgian peacekeepers. Dallaire was ordered not to take any action that would require the peacekeepers to use force - Mar. 1994 – Kigali was teaming with many Western expatriates. Hutu extremists began arming themselves and planning political assassinations. - Apr. 6, 1994 – a missile was shot at the Hutu President’s plan (by Hutu extremist) - Apr. 7, 1994 – UN commanders ordered Dallaire not to intervene. They protected the Moderate PM but when the UN peacekeepers surrendered their weapons to the Rwandans, the PM was found and killed. - Apr. 8, 1994 – Clinton administration ordered all Americans in Rwanda to evacuate. All embassies in Kigali were closed and 8 diplomats were ordered out of the country. - Apr. 9, 1994 – 1000 French & Belgian troops (not part of UN) arrived without warning. Their goal was to get the expatriates out. All Western troops & UN peacekeepers were ordered not to evacuate ordinary Rwandans. Over 100 American convoys were sent to hide & rescue the Rwandans. - Apr. 10, 1994 – Dallaire was instructed to close down his peacekeeping mission. Hutu extremists planned the next phase of the attack (attacking the entire nation). Encouraged all Hutus to hate their Tutsi neighbors. During the first 2 weeks, 100,000 Rwandans were killed. - Apr. 21, 1994 – Rwandan Human Rights activists asked for stronger US action. US & UN Security Council withdrew 90% of the peacekeeping forces from Rwanda (policy of non-intervention). - Apr. 25 – Gromo Alex (Veteran UN Aid worker) came back to Rwanda and set up a Humanitarian team. - 4 wks into the genocide; 300,000 Rwandans were killed. Why was there no intervention? - “The genocide that didn’t happen” theory (Hollander) - If you deploy troops to a country where genocide might happen, and the genocide does not happen, you have no news story to give you the credit. - “It wouldn’t have mattered anyway” theory (Alan J. Kuperman) How did the Hutu/Tutsi distinction come about? What accounts for the salience of any particular attribute? - Minimum Winning Coalition: when a group of people come together for a purpose. It includes no extra people beyond what is needed to get a majority. Politics: the process by which individual interests are reconciled with collective action.
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Political identity is malleable. Often, they overlap because people belong to more than 1 political identity group. They tend to behave on a narrow dimension based on the public goods that are distributed. Joanne Nagel –
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Poli 136a Study Guide - GENOCIDE IN RWANDA: Facts Two major...

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