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GOVERNMENT CH 1-8 VOCABULARY CHAPTER 1: 1. Democracy – A system of rule by the people, defined by the existence of popular sovereignty, political equality, and political liberty 2. Tyranny – The abuse of power by a ruler or a government 3. Direct Democracy – A form of political decision making in which the public business is decided by all citizens meeting in small assemblies 4. Representative Democracy – Indirect democracy, in which the people rule through elected representatives 5. Popular Sovereignty – The basic principle of democracy that the people ultimately rule 6. Majority Rule – The principle that says that each person carries equal weight in the conduct of the public business 7. Civil Rights – Guarantees by the government of equal citizenship to all social groups 8. Political Liberty – The principle that citizens in a democracy are protected from government interference in the exercise of a range of basic freedoms of speech, association, and conscience 9. Social Contract – A philosophical device, used by Enlightenment thinkers such as Locke, Rousseau, and Harrington, to suggest that governments are only legitimate if they are created by a voluntary compact among the people 10. Majority Tyranny – Suppression of the rights and liberties of a minority by the majority 11. Electoral College – Representatives of the states who formally elect the president; the number of electors in each states is equal to the total number of its senators and congressional representatives 12. Cold War – The period of tense relations between the United States and the Soviet Union from the late 1940s to the late 1980s 13. Jim Crow – Popular term for the system of legally sanctioned racial segregation that existed in the American South until the middle of the twentieth century CHAPTER 2: 14. Confederation – A loose association of states or territorial units formed for a common purpose 15. Constitution – The basic framework of law that prescribes how government is to operate 16. Articles of Confederation – The first constitution of the United States, adopted during the last stages of the Revolutionary War, created a system of government with the most power lodged in the states and little in the central government 17. Republicanism, eighteenth century – A political doctrine advocating limited government based on popular consent, protected against majority tyranny 18. Stay Acts – Enactments postponing the collection of taxes or mortgage payments 19. Virginia Plan – Proposal by the large states at the Constitutional Convention to create a strong central government with power in the government apportioned to the states on the basis of population 20. New Jersey Plan – Proposal of the smaller states at the Constitutional Convention to create a government based on the equal representation of the states in a unicameral legislature 21. Connecticut Compromise – Also called the Great Compromise; the compromise between the New Jersey and
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This note was uploaded on 04/26/2008 for the course GOV 310L taught by Professor Kieth during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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