Chapter 1-8 Outlines - Chapter One Outline Reasons for...

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Chapter One Outline Reasons for democracy as a superior form of government 1. Only form that recognizes the intrinsic worth/equality of human beings a. Best protects human rights 2. Most rational form a. Relies on pool of knowledge and expertise 3. Ensures stability a. Leaders enjoy a strong sense of legitimacy. 4. Excellent for economic growth 5. Gives human beings the freedom to develop natural capacities and talents. Direct Democracy Vs. Representative: Direct- 1. Requires all citizens meet regularly 2. Only manageable in small populations 3. Demands that citizens have abundant leisure time. Representative- 1. The people select others to act in their place 2. Large populations 3. The U.S. form of democracy. Principles of Representative Democracy: 1. Popular Sovereignty- a. the people are the ultimate source of power- authority is in the hands of the many b. conditions: i. Policies reflect peoples wishes 1. Representatives respond to the “deliberative will” of the people. ii. Competitive elections 1. Forces leaders to respond to the people. iii. Free and fair elections 1. All citizens can run and vote 2. Election rules don’t favor one side iv. People MUST participate 1. Less participation= weaker democracy v. Quality of information MUST be available 1. People must be provided with accurate information, insightful interpretations, and vigorous debate 2. This is the responsibility of officials as well as the media. vi. Majority rules 1. The government must adopt policies that most people want. 2. Political Equality a. Each person carries the same weight. b. One, and only one, voice 3. Political Liberty a. This is the principle that citizens in democracy are protected from government interference in the exercise of a range of basic freedoms: i. Freedom of speech, religions, assembly, press, etc. b. John Locke stated that prote4cting these liberties is the central role of any government. Objections to Representative Government: 1. Majority Tyranny Threatens Liberty a. Such groups as atheists and communists are prosecuted [McCarthy] b. Majority tyranny- suppression of rights of minority by the majority 2. People are irrational and incompetent a. Many people do not care about politics/ are poorly informed 3. Majoritarian Democracy threatens minorities. a. In cases involving race, ethnicity, religion, or sex where minority status is fixed, the unbridled majority leaves no room for the claims of minorities. Organizing Main Factors of Political Life 1. Structure a. Economy, society, constitutional rules, political culture, international system.
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2. Political linkage a. Political actors, institutions, and actions 3. Government a. All public officials. 4. Government action a. Making laws, issuing rules and regulations, waging war, national defense, etc. (I am not sure what the significance of that last part is…but whatever) Additional Terms: Tyranny- society where leaders abuse their power Social contract- voluntary compact agreed upon by the people. John Locke states that a government is only legit. If it is created under a social contract.
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