Macromolecules Mcguire - The Chemistry of Life Chemical...

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The Chemistry of Life
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Chemical reactions 3.1.0 – Compare physical and chemical reactions. Physical reactions are more easily reversible and generally involve changes in temperature or breakage. Key words: freeze, melt, evaporate, dissolve, crack, mix. Chemical reactions change the material into something entirely different - the process of making and breaking chemical bonds. Key words: rust, corrode, oxidize, reduce.
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Chemical elements in the human body 3.1.1 – State that the most frequently occurring chemical elements in living things are carbon , hydrogen , oxygen , and nitrogen . Protein DNA
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Chemical elements in the human body 3.1.2 – State that a variety of other elements are needed by living organisms, including sulfur, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium. ~25 elements are essential to life: Top 12: CHOPKINS CaFe Mg (Chopkin’s café, mighty good) Roughly 99 percent of your body's mass is composed of just six elements: oxygen (65 percent); carbon (18 percent); hydrogen (10 percent); nitrogen (3 percent); calcium (1.5 percent); and phosphorus (1 percent).
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Chemical elements in the human body The remaining 1 percent of the human recipe consists of tiny amounts of potassium , sulfur , sodium , chlorine and magnesium , plus even smaller traces of trace elements like iron , zinc , copper , iodine , & molybdenum ( found in enzymes) . There are ~7x10 27 atoms in a human body.
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Chemical elements in the human body 3.1.3.- State one role for each of the elements mentioned in 3.1.2. Calcium (Ca) – Essential to formation of bones and teeth, effective transmission of nerve impulses, and muscle contractions. Sulfur (S) – Integral component of protein. Phosphorus (P) – Essential to virtually every body process, including cell growth, bone and tooth formation, kidney function, and heart contractions; found in DNA. Sodium (Na) – Helps balance pH in body, regulate water levels, and aid nerve conduction. Iron (Fe) – Essential to general health and several body systems; serves as blood-oxygen
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Effects of water’s polarity 3.1.4 – Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of water molecules to show their polarity & hydrogen bond formation. Polarity (the effect of having distinct ends, or poles) gives water opposite charges on opposite ends of the molecule. Weak hydrogen bonds form between H of one molecule and O of another, to a max- imum of 4 bonds. Hydrogen bonds are th the easiest to break - just use heat.
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Emergent properties of water 3.1.5 – Outline thermal, cohesive, & solvent properties of water. Water has cohesive behavior (holds together). Cohesion means it sticks to itself . due to hydrogen bonding among molecules. aids transport up stems against gravity. Water also has adhesion (it clings to other substances, such as paper towels) due to H- bonds. Water has great surface tension due to H-bonds: it is difficult to break the surface, so it forms beads. Some creatures can walk across it.
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Emergent properties of water A Jesus lizard (or basilisk) using water’s property of surface tension to walk on water and escape predators.
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Emergent properties of water Cohesive and adhesive properties of water:
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