NUTR 207 Notes

NUTR 207 Notes - Chapter 7 Metabolism Functions of the...

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Chapter 7- Metabolism Functions of the Liver Proteins: 1) Manufactures nonessential amino acids that are in short supply 2) Removes from circulation amino acids that are in excess of need. It converts these excess amino acids into other amino acids or, DEAMINATES them and converts them to GLUCOSE or FATTY ACIDS, or into cholesterol or ketones 3) Removes ammonia from the blood and converts to urea. 4) Makes other nitrogen containing compounds such as DNA or RNA 5) Makes PLASMA proteins such as clotting factors. Lipids: 1) BUILDS and BREAKSDOWN triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol as needed. 2) Chylomicrons enter the liver and VLDL and HDL is released from the liver. 3) Breaks down fatty acids for energy (TCA cycle, electron transport chain) 4) Creates ketone bodies during times of glucose starvation 5) Packages extra lipids in lipoproteins for transport to other body organs. 6) Manufactures bile to be released from the gall bladder into the small intestine to emulsify fats which are therefore easier to digest with the help of enzymes. CHOs: 1) Converts fructose and galactose to glucose 2) Makes and stores glycogen 3) Breaks down glycogen to be used as glucose for energy 4) Breaks down glucose for energy when needed. 5) Makes glucose from amino acids and glycerol when needed. 6) Converts excess glucose to fatty acids. Other: 1) Detoxifies alcohol, other drugs, poisons, preps waste products for excretion 2) Helps dismantle old RBCs and captures the iron for recycling 3) Stores most of vitamins and many minerals Breaking down nutrients for energy - The body uses CHOS and fats for most of its energy needs. - Pyruvate can be used to make glucose. - Acetyle CoA CAN NOT be used to make glucose. - Going from Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA is a irreversible step.
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- Without glucose from food the body will devour its own lean protein issue to provide the amino acids for glucose. (Protein-Sparing action is thrown out of the window, while glucogenesis occurs)
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NUTR 207 Notes - Chapter 7 Metabolism Functions of the...

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