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test one - Psychology 101 First Test Chapters 1-5(up to...

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Psychology 101 – First Test – Chapters 1-5 (up to middle of p. 152) CHAPTER ONE By the 1870s a small number of scholars in fields of philosophy and physiology were actively exploring questions of the mind. A German professor, Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) made a campaign to make psychology an independent discipline. 1879- Wundt established the first formal laboratory at the University of Leipzig According to Wundt, subject matter was the consciousness Structuralism (emerged through Edward Titchener) Based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related Structuralists – usually laboratory Introspection (the structuralists depended on this method to examine the contents of consciousness) The careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience Functionalism Based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure William James – Principles of Psychology (1890) – became standard reading for generations of psychologists Functionalists – more interested in how people adapt their behavior to the demands of the world Natural Selection (Charles Darwin) Inherited characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be ‘selected’ over time William James Used the theory of natural selection to state that psychology should investigate the functions rather than the structure of consciousness Argued that consciousness consisted of a continuous flow of thoughts Sigmund Freud In his medical practice, he treated people troubled by psycho. problems, obsessions, and anxieties through psychoanalysis According to him, the unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior Psychoanalytic theory – attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior o Subject matter – unconscious determinants in behavior
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Behaviorism (founded by John B. Watson) Subject matter – effects of environment on the overt behavior of humans and animals A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior Behavior refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism Pretty much against psychoanalysis Watson – nature versus nurture? Argued that for example, a criminal is made, not born B. F. Skinner Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes Arrived at the conclusion that free will is an illusion Humanism Subject matter: unique aspects of human experience
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