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Test two

Test two - BOOK NOTES Dreams Most dreams unfold in familiar...

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BOOK NOTES Dreams Most dreams unfold in familiar settings with characters dominated by family, friends, and colleagues Most common: chased, sex, falling, schools, arriving late Dreams tend to center on classic sources of internal conflict; self-centered You dream about what is going on in your life; things that you want to forget about, tend to show up in dreams External stimuli can affect dreams FREUD – thought the purpose of dreams was wish fulfillment CARTWRIGHT – thought dreams provided an opportunity to work through everyday problems – problem solving view HOBSON and McCARLEY – thought that dreams were simply the by-product of bursts of activity from subcortical areas in the brain…neurons firing in the lower brain centers send random signals to the cortex (the seat of complex thought)… the cortex interprets these signals and constructs a dream to make sense of it – activation synthesis Learning Learning is any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience Classical conditioning – a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus Pavlov’s dog studies – the dogs did not originally salivate to a stimulus…with stimulus, they did Stimulus response associations are formed by events in an organisms environment Unconditioned Stimulus – a natural, unlearned association (dogs salivated with meat powder) Conditioned Stimulus – an association established through conditioning (dogs salivated to a tone) Classical conditioning often plays a key role in sharpening emotional responses such as fear and anxiety, as well as pleasant responses Basic Processes in Classical Conditioning Acquisition refers to the initial stage of learning something Extinction refers to the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency Spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus Stimulus generalization occurs when an organism responds to a similar stimulus, although it is different than the learned stimulus Stimulus discrimination occurs when an organism does NOT respond to a similar stimulus, although it is different than the learned stimulus Higher order conditioning is where a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus
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Operant conditioning (B. F. Skinner) is a form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences Skinner said that organisms tend to repeat responses that are followed by favorable consequences Reinforcement occurs when an event following a response increases an organisms tendency to make that response Operant responses are established through a gradual process called shaping which is the reinforcement of closer and closer approx. of a desired response Resistance to extinction occurs when an organism continues to make a response
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Test two - BOOK NOTES Dreams Most dreams unfold in familiar...

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