Care of patients with peripheral nerve and degenerative - CARE OF PATIENTS WITH PERIPHERAL NERVE AND DEGENERATIVE NEUROLOGIC DISORDERS KEY TERMS

Care of patients with peripheral nerve and degenerative -...

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CARE OF PATIENTS WITH PERIPHERAL NERVE AND DEGENERATIVE NEUROLOGIC DISORDERS
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KEY TERMSBRADYKINESIACHOREADEMYELINATIONDIPLOPIAHYPERESTHESIA
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PARKINSON’S DISEASENAMED AFTER JAMES PARKINSON, WHO FIRST DISCOVERED THE SYNDROME IN 1871CONSIDERED A MAJOR HEALTH PROBLEM BECAUSE OF IT’S CRIPPLING EFFECTSPROGRESSIVE DISORDER, BEGINNING RAPIDLY AT FIRST THEN ADVANCING MORE SLOWLYMEN > WOMEN
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PARKINSON’S DISEASEETIOLOGYSPECIFIC CAUSE UNKNOWN, BUT INVOLVES DEGENERATION OF THE DOPAMINE-PRODUCING NEURONS IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA OF THE MID-BRAIN, AND THE PRESENCE OF LEWY BODIES (CYTOPLASMIC INCLUSIONS)GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOXINS APPEAR TO PLAY A ROLEMOST COMMON TYPE OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE IS IDIOPATHIC- PRIMARY OR SPECIFIC CAUSE IS UNKNOWN
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PARKINSON’S DISEASEETIOLOGYSECONDARY PARKINSON’S DISEASE CAN BE DRUG INDUCED, ESPECIALLY BY RESERPINE-TYPE ANTIHYPERTENSIVES SUCH AS METHYLDOPA, PHENOTHIAZINES, SOME TRANQUILIZERS SUCH AS BUTYROPHENONES, SOME ANTIEMETIC, METHAMPHETAMINE AND A FEW OTHERSTHESE DRUGS BLOCK THE UPTAKE OF DOPAMINE AT THE RECEPTORS IN BRAIN CELLS AND MAY INDUCE PARKINSON’S DISEASE SYMPTOMSPESTICIDES AND HERBICIDE EXPOSURE IS LARGELY IMPLICATED AS A CAUSE OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE
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PARKINSON’S DISEASEPATHOPHYSIOLOGYAFFECTS THE EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYSTEM, IN PARTICULAR THE MOTOR STRUCTURES IN THE BASAL GANGLIA- PART OF BRAIN THAT CONTROLS BALANCE AND COORDINATIONBASAL GANGLIA ARE GRAY MATTER THAT IS SCATTERED THROUGHOUT THE WHITE MATTER OF THE CEREBRUM BENEATH THE CEREBRAL CORTEXSTIMULATION OF THE BASAL GANGLIA CAUSES MUSCLE TONE IN THE BODY TO BE INHIBITED AND ALLOWS REFINED VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS
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PARKINSON’S DISEASEPATHOPHYSIOLOGYTWO NEUROTRANSMITTERS- DOPAMINE AND ACETYLCHOLINEACH-PRODUCING NEURONS TRANSMIT EXCITATORY MESSAGES THROUGHOUT THE BASAL GANGLIADOPAMINE INHIBITS THE FUNCTION OF THESE NEURONS SO THERE CAN BE CONTROL OF VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTTHERE IS USUALLY A BALANCE OF BOTH NEUROTRANSMITTERS
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PARKINSON’S DISEASEPATHOPHYSIOLOGYDEGENERATIVE CHANGES IN BASAL GANGLIA LEAD TO A DECREASE IN DOPAMINEACH SECRETING NEURONS REMAIN ACTIVE, CREATING AN IMBALANCE BETWEEN EXCITATORY AND INHIBITORY NEURONAL ACTIVITYTHE EXCESSIVE EXCITATION OF NEURONS PREVENTS A PERSON FROM CONTROLLING OR INITIATING VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS
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PARKINSON’S DISEASESIGNS AND SYMPTOMSGRADUAL ONSET, MAY INVOLVE ONLY ONE SIDE OF THE BODYTRIAD OF SYMPTOMS CHARACTERISTIC OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE- TREMOR, BRADYKINESIA, RIGIDITYTREMORS OCCURS WHEN THE BODY IS AT REST, DECREASES WHEN THERE IS VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT, ABSENT WHEN SLEEPING. IF PATIENT SUFFERS STRESS AND EMOTIONAL TENSION, THE TREMOR BECOMES MORE PRONOUNCED
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PARKINSON’S DISEASESIGNS AND SYMPTOMSBRADYKINESIA- SLOW MOVEMENT AND SPEECH, PRODUCES POOR BODY BALANCE, CHARACTERISTIC GAIT, AND DIFFICULTY INITIATING MOVEMENT. GAIT IS SHUFFLING, WITH SHORT STEPS THAT BECOME QUICKER
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