Introductory to Physical Oceanography

Introductory to Physical Oceanography - SOES 1004 –...

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Unformatted text preview: SOES 1004 – Introductory Physical Oceanography Dr. Simon Boxall The water itself Makes dissolving things easy (1) Salinity • S : total amount of solid material contained in a unit mass of seawater – g/kg – Typically 35 g/kg – Units used to be ppt or ‰ – Now we use psu (practical salinity units) or nothing! Range 0 (estuaries) to 42 (Red Sea) Average concentrations of the principal ions in sea water Ion ‰ by weight Chloride, Cl- 18.980 Sulphate, SO 4 2- 2.649 Bicarbonate, HCO 3- 0.140 Bromide, Br- 0.065 Borate, H 2 BO 3- 0.026 Fluoride, F- 0.001 Sodium, Na + 10.556 Magnesium, Mg 2 + 1.272 Calcium, Ca 2+ 0.400 Potassium, K + 0.380 Strontium, Sr 2+ 0.013 Positive ions (cations) 12.291‰ Negative ions (anions) 21.861‰ Salinity continued • Measurement: – Used to be titration with silver nitrate – Now use electrical conductivity • Terms: – “HALINE” • Isohaline • Halocline Salinity Distribution • Zonal in distribution with close correlation to evaporation and rainfall. Salinity Changes...
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This note was uploaded on 04/26/2008 for the course SOES 1004 taught by Professor Boxall during the Spring '08 term at Uni. Southampton.

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Introductory to Physical Oceanography - SOES 1004 –...

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