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Week9Slides.pptx - Oxygenation NUR 3028 What is...

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OxygenationNUR 3028
What is Oxygenation?What’s the differencebetween ventilation andperfusion?Ventilation=>Mechanical processof getting the O2into the lungsPerfusion=>Gas exchange andtransfer ofoxygenated blood tothe tissuesBreathe in O2Gas exchangein Lungs:Breathe outCO2Heart pumpsoxygenatedblood totissuesO2 movesfrom hgb intotissuesDeoxygenatedblood back toheart, pumpedto lungs,....
OxygenationVentilation in excess of that required toeliminate carbon dioxide produced by cellularmetabolismHyperventilationAlveolar ventilation inadequate to meet thebody’s oxygen demand or to eliminatesufficient carbon dioxideHypoventilationInadequate tissue oxygenation at the cellularlevelHypoxiaBlue discoloration of the skin and mucousmembranesCyanosis3
HypoxiaDecreased hemoglobinDiminished concentrationTissues can't extract O2Decreased diffusion of O2 to alveoliPoor tissue perfusionImpaired ventilation
Principles for PracticeOxygen therapyis used totreathypoxiaTreat oxygen as a medicationProvider order requiredHemoglobinCarrier of oxygen (O2), andcarbon dioxide (CO2)Hemoglobin levels and acid-base status directly affectoxygenationIncreased oxygen demandsPain and anxietyFever increases the body’smetabolic rate, increasingoxygen demand5
Physiological Factors thatAffect OxygenationDecreased O2 carryingcapacityAnemiaIncreased CO2Carbon monoxideCO binds tohemoglobin withmuch greateraffinity than oxygenInability of tissues toextract O2 from thebloodCyanide poisoningHypovolemiaBlood lossSevere dehydrationDecreasedcirculating volumeDecreased inspired O2Airway obstructionCollapsed alveoliHigh altitudesOxygenmoleculesin the air arefurther apart,reducingtheoxygencontentof each breathincrementallyIncreased metabolicrateIncreased O2demand
Alterations in RespiratoryFunctioningHypoventilationEmphysemaCystic fibrosisBronchitisHyperventilationAsthmaAnxiety /Panic AttacksStressEmphysemaCardiac alterations canalso cause alterations inrespiratory functioning(!!)PregnancyObesityMusculoskeletalabnormalitiesScoliosisKyphosisTraumaImpaired ventilationRib fracturesTracheal obstructionCNS alterationsNeuromuscular diseasesGuillain-Barré
Influences of Chronic Diseasesthat Affect OxygenationCOPD & EmphysemaBarrel chestAir trappingDiaphragm flattens
Developmental and Lifestyle FactorsInfluencing OxygenationChildrenImmature immune system putsthem at higher risk of gettingrespiratory infectionsElderlyPhysiological changes in thebodyPostureAging immune system whichmay be weakerHigher risk of gettingrespiratory infectionsHealth promotion->PneumococcalvaccinationSmoking & second &third hand smokeNutritionExerciseSubstance abuseStressPanic/anxiety attacksSmogin urban areasOccupational pollutionAsbestos exposureTalcum powderDustAirborne fibers

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