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Psyc 500 notes for Exam 1

Psyc 500 notes for Exam 1 - Jan 22 The Science-Practitioner...

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Jan. 22 The Science-Practitioner Model Boulder conference (1949) 1 st time psychologists met to standardize clinical and research methods. Within psychology departments. Vail conference (1973) dissension about Boulder conference. Practitioner model, consumer of research not producer. The scientific method -pose question/problem -define terms -hypothesize solution -gather data (assessment) -analyze data -test hypothesis -draw conclusion Cognitive therapy-change thought patterns Behavior therapy-change actions and improves how one feels Why do research? Experts often disagree. Conflicting findings qualified results. Best treatment. Exceptions. Personal experiences to the contrary. Topics of research -nature of a disorder phenomenology….what are the symptoms? -incident rates how many new cases -prevalence rates how many people have it? One study says 40% of population experience depression at some point. -Associated features bad/good things ex) comorbidity ex)higher grades -risk factors typically considered bad….parental psychopathology…..high expressed emotion -protective factors good version of risk factors……ex)warm family support and low expressed emotion ex) internal locus of control……taking responsibility vs. blaming external factor -treatment outcomes what works best? ...... efficacy, does the treatment work? Effectiveness, does it work in practice? -mediator mechanism of a particular outcome -moderator interaction……………………………………….??? Research Measure! Rules: -standardization….norming -reliability…is the measure consistent -validity…. Are you actually measuring construct of interest Forms of measurement -clinical interview……unstructured, like a first date……semi-structured, common way…….completely structured, ask set list of questions -tests……IQ, personality, behavior checklist, disorder checklist -psychophysiology/neuroimaging measuring physical responses Inconsistency interference extraneous influences -observation unstructured to structured………inexpensive………..focus on certain behaviors……can control environment-----limitation……..can it be representative??
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Validity of measurement -internal validity……..construct accounts for finding……….threats maturation-testing-selection bias -external validity……..generalization of finding……..threats setting ex)community mental health vs. university for mental health -sampling, must be carefully defined inpatient vs. outpatient………clinical vs. non- clinical……..comorbidity, who’s included and excluded……..random sampling vs. convenience sampling Types of design (observational) -retrospective ask about the past……susceptible to recall error (bias and distortion) -prospective follow sample over time (longitudinal)…..susceptible to attrition……expensive…..time consuming -Case studies….. intense observation of one person………..highly describtive………examine impact of treatment…….uncontrolled……selection bias……….valid inferences?
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